Development of nanocrystalline tungsten-25%Rhenium alloy reinforced with hafnium carbide is a challenging task as these alloys are difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. The problem of these difficult to alloy elements can be addressed by using a unique combination of mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering SPS techniques via powder metallurgy route. Rhenium was added to lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and to increase recrystallization temperature of tungsten. SPS is rapid consolidating technique which prevents grain growth.
Basically, glycan beautifies all mammalian cell surfaces through glycosylation. Glycan is one of the most important post-modiﬁcations of proteins. Glycans on cell surfaces facilitate a wide variety of biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, cell-cell communication, immune response, intracellular signalling events and host-pathogen interactions. High-performance optical sensors are very important for rapid, sensitive and precise detection of chemical and biological species for various fields, including biomedical diagnosis, drug screening, food safety, environmental protection etc.
To explore the novel kinds of sensors with low cost, portability, sufficient sensitivity, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and multiplexing detection capability still remain in high demand. Therefore, a significant advancement of silicon nanotechnology, functional silicon nanomaterial/Nano hybrids (e.g., fluorescent silicon nanoparticles, gold/silver nanoparticles-decorated silicon nanowires or silicon wafer, etc) featuring unique optical properties have been intensively employed for the design of high-quality fluorescent and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensors. Therefore, currently exists increasing concerns on the development of a kind of high-performance SERS platform, which is suitable for glycan expression of different cell lines and as well as used for the sensitive detection of glycans on live cells. Herein, we introduce the possibility of silicon-based probe for biomolecules of interest in the vicinity of cells using SERS.
These tool materials can withstand high temperatures and harsh conditions in joining application such as Friction Stir Welding FSW of steel and titanium alloys. FSW is a green process which does not emit fume and toxic fumes during the process. Sintering was carried between 1500-1800oC. Mechanically alloyed and Spark Plasma Sintered alloy and composite were characterized by optical microscopy. Spark plasma sintered samples were further electrochemically etched in one molar concentrated solution of NaOH. The results of the FESEM images confirm microstructural revelation of these difficult to etch alloy and composites. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy FESEM and X-ray Diffraction. Microstructural investigation of consolidated specimens was initially carried out by conventional etching and metallography techniques. Optical micrographs showed no visible signs of grain boundary etching.