Recent work in vitro has shown that fibroblasts and myofibroblasts have opposing effects on neurite outgrowth by peripheral sensory neurons. Here, we tested a prediction from this work that dampening the fibrotic response in the early phases of corneal wound healing in vivo could enhance reinnervation after a large, deep corneal injury such as that induced by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Since topical steroids and Mitomycin C (MMC) are often used clinically for mitigating corneal inflammation and scarring after PRK, they were ideal to test this prediction. Twenty adult cats underwent bilateral, myopic PRK over a 6 mm optical zone followed by either: (1) intraoperative MMC (n = 12 eyes), (2) intraoperative prednisolone acetate (PA) followed by twice daily topical application for 14 days (n = 12 eyes), or (3) no post-operative treatment (n = 16 eyes). Anti-fibrotic effects of MMC and PA were verified optically and histologically. First, optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed pre-operatively and 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-PRK was used to assess changes in corneal backscatter reflectivity
Post-mortem immunohistochemistry was then performed at 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-PRK, using antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Finally, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against βIII-tubulin (Tuj-1) was performed in the same corneas to quantify changes in nerve distribution relative to un operated, control cat corneas. Two weeks after PRK, untreated corneas exhibited the greatest amount of staining for α-SM, PA-treated and MMC-treated eyes. This was matched by higher OCT-based stromal reflectivity values in untreated, than PA- and MMC-treated eyes. PA treatment appeared to slow epithelial healing and although normal epithelial thickness was restored by 12 weeks-post-PRK, intra-epithelial nerve length only reached 1/6 normal values in PA-treated eyes. Even peripheral cornea (outside the ablation zone) exhibited depressed intra-epithelial nerve densities after PA treatment. Stromal nerves were abundant under the α-SMA zone, but appeared to largely avoid it, creating an area of sub-epithelial stroma devoid of nerve trunks. In turn, this may have led to the lack of sub-basal and intra-epithelial nerves in the ablation zone of PA-treated eyes 4 weeks after PRK, and their continuing paucity 12 weeks after PRK.
Intra-operative MMC, which sharply decreased α-SMA staining, was followed by rapid restoration of nerve densities in all corneal layers post-PRK compared to untreated corneas. Curiously, stromal nerves appeared unaffected by the development of large, stromal, acellular zones in MMC-treated corneas. Overall, it appears that post-PRK treatments that were most effective at reducing α-SMA-positive cells in the early post-operative period benefited nerve regeneration the most, resulting in more rapid restoration of nerve densities in all corneallayers of the ablation zone and of the corneal periphery.
Nowadays most of the people using smartphones. Smartphone provides more benefits at the same time smart overuse may damage your eyes. Smartphones, Laptops, and e-readers all transmit blue light which is toxic to specialized cells known as photoreceptors located in the retina, and responsible for our vision. Results of new research now point to a specific way in which blue light emitted from electronic devices has the potential to lead to macular degeneration, a major cause of vision loss. Retinal produced by blue light is toxic to cells. The shorter wavelength of blue light measured to other types of light, packs greater energy, generating retinal which is toxic to photoreceptor cells in the retina. Macular degeneration results from the death of specialized photoreceptor cells in the retina, so critical for vision. Smartphone misuse could contribute to serious eye diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and Retinal Diseases. Eye strain from improper smartphone habits creates unnecessary suffering. Night time smartphone use leads to poor sleep. And also causes to eye strain eyes feel dry, itchy, or stinging, blurred vision, headache, neck, or shoulder pain, seeing double, trouble concentrating, and fatigue.
Photoreceptor cells are vital to our vision by capturing visual images in the world and transmitting them to our brain via a compound known as retinal. Retinal is produced by our eyes and is reacted by the blue light which leads to a number of chemical reactions. But it turns out that some of these reactions lead to toxic radicals which can permanently damage these photoreceptor cells, leading to cell death. Once they are gone, they cannot regenerate. Blue lite exposed other types of cell cancer, cardiac and neuronal diseases. When the retinal-enriched cells were exposed to blue light, the end result was also cell death.
However, there is much you can do to prevent problems from smartphones. Finally one suggestion for all the people how to use smartphones without damaging your eyes. For example, preserve the phone farther away from your face is better. Your phone has a built-in report about your usage. Additionally, you can teach loved one’s habits that help preserve healthy vision.
Now a day’s diabetes is a common problem. Diabetes is Causes to Eye diseases in Children. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by a decreased production of insulin or by the body’s inability to use insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is necessary for the body’s control of blood sugar. Fluctuations in blood sugar can be harmful to the body, including the eyes. Diabetes can occur at any age, in present diabetes is affected inborn babies, but most commonly is diagnosed from early childhood to the late 30s.In this type of diabetes, a person’s glucagon products little or no insulin. Children with diabetes are at risk of developing eye disease that can affect their vision. Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that affect those with diabetes.
Diabetic eye disease may include:
Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy is most in American adults. It causes blindness in young children, it is caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina.it is seeing the layer of the eye.
Diabetic macular edema (DME): Diabetes is the leading cause of new blindness, with DME contributing greatly to this vision loss. It may affect up to 10% of people with diabetes. Diabetic macular edema is a complication of diabetes caused by fluid accumulation in the macula that can affect the fovea. Vision loss from DME can advance over a period of months and make it impossible to focus clearly.
Cataract: It is a clouding of the eye lens, which blocks to the passage of light into the eye. The lens of the eye is located the pupil and the eye coloured iris and is normally transparent. The cause of cataract, your vision may become blurry or dim because cataracts stop light from properly passing through to your retina.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is an important, lifelong eye disease. It can lead to vision loss not controlled, but now a day’s glaucoma is controllable with modern treatment.
Symptoms of the disease:
- Blurred vision
- Extreme hunger accompanied by weight loss
- Excessive thirst
- Frequent urination
- Loss of feeling or tingles in the extremities
- Frequent infections of the bladder, skin, or gums
- Dry mouth
- Slow healing of cuts and scrapes
- Excessive or unusual infections
Treatment: The first step in any treatment for diabetic eye disease is to maintain Diabetic percentage in blood, blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol levels as close to normal as possible. In modern days treatment for diabetic eye diseases in three options.
- laser treatment
- Avastin, Lucentis, or Eylea injection
- intravitreal steroids: Kenalog, Ozurdex, and Iluvien
Vision science is the logical investigation of vision/Eye. Vision science studies of vision and advanced vision care, for example, human and non-human organisms process visual data, how cognizant visual discernment works in people, how to misuse visual observation for powerful correspondence, and how counterfeit frameworks can do similar errands. Vision science covers with or envelops disciplines, for example, ophthalmology and optometry, neuroscience, brain research, especially in neuropsychology, biopsychology and intellectual brain science, material science, especially optics, ethology, and software engineering (particularly computer vision, artificial intelligence, and computer graphics) and also other building related zones, for example, information perception, UI outline, and human components and ergonomics.
Optometry in vision science:
Optometry is study of health care in vision, which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or characteristics as well as the diagnosing and management of disease of eye. The field of optometry starts with the primary focus of rectifying the refractive error through the use of eye glasses. In Modern-days optometry has evolved in the educational program, in additionally includes with the depth in medical training in the diagnosing and management of eye diseases where ever controlled.
Optometrists are health care professionals in the primary eye care through including the eye examinations to detected and treat various eye diseases. Being a managed profession, an optometrist’s scope of apply might dissent depending on the situation. Thus, disorders or diseases detected outside the treatment scope of practice in optometry referred out to relevant medical professionals for correct vision care, more commonly to ophthalmologists who are physicians that practiced in triennially medical and surgical care of the eye. Optometrists are works intently beside different eye care professionals such as ophthalmologists and opticians to deliver constitutionally and economical eye care to the overall general public.