Category Archives: Oncology

What Macmillan Nurses Will Do??

12Macmillan nurses support cancer patients and their families physically and psychologically, ensuring that each person achieves the highest quality of life to live from the time they are diagnosed, through treatment, whatever the outcome will be.

As clinical experts in nursing practices, they may specialise in caring for a particular group of people, such as children; a particular type of cancer, such as breast cancer; the type of problem; such as lymphoedema; or type of care, such as palliative care.

Nurse’s Whoever working in hospitals and in the community, they provide emotional and psychological support and expert information and advice on managing symptoms, pain control, cancer treatments and side effects from the medication, as well as offering assistance and suggesting with financial matters.

Macmillan nurses do not provide hands-on care. Instead, their role is to assess an individual’s psychological and physical needs, and the needs of their families, and then coordinate a team of people to provide that care. As more people are diagnosed with cancer, and many are living longer with the diseases, cancer is becoming a far more complex illness in these days.

Macmillan knows that clinical nurse specialists are a key part of multi-disciplinary teams, providing technical expertise and practical support, and facilitating communication between care settings and professionals. Research shows that having access to one of these cancer nurses is a key factor in positive outcomes.

I think you have Cancer: Look what your Dog knows

2The great ability of animals to sense danger such as the natural disaster like earthquakes, tsunamis etc., are already well known. But most interestingly it was found that the dogs can sense and detect the cancer and other diseases. In the recent years, this observation has become the area of interest and attracted widespread coverage. Many researches have been done to reason this outstanding ability of the dogs.

The dazzling smelling ability of Dogs is no secret. They can smell even the slightest odour such as a drop of blood in a swimming pool. This remarkable sense of smell is already in use for dogs to sniff narcotics and explosives in the military. But the studies have suggested that this olfactory ability of dogs is also useful to sniff out cancer and other diseases in humans and has been named as Canine cancer detection.

As humans can smell cancer in the later stages of cancer, it makes sense that dogs are able to detect cancer way before at zero stage and are well qualified for this accomplishment. Dogs have 300 million smell receptors compared to humans with only 6 million of them. This boosts their smelling ability to 100,000 times. Also, the greater part of dog’s brain is devoted to smell or the olfactory cortex, which is dominated by visual cortex in human, making the dogs to analyse smells 40 times better than us.

But the question arises that what is there in cancer that dog smells?

This is supported by the fact that cancerous cells release very low concentrations of the alkanes and aromatic compounds that is different from the metabolic products generated by healthy cells. This significant change can be smelled by the dogs in urine, sweat, feces and breath. This has been confirmed in case of skin cancers where dogs detect the cancer by just simply sniffing the skin lesions.

This potential advantage of dog has significant benefits for human in medical field. Using a dog to detect cancer even at the earliest stage or at the stage enough to be treatable, can greatly help to cure patient.  Canine care detection is a low-risk and non-invasive method and offers various other advantages. Some researchers believe the trained dogs will become integrated directly into patient care, while other researchers recommend using this skill for developing machines that can reliably detect odor signatures from cancer, such as electronic noses.

In almost all the cases where the owners get themselves diagnosed as per the alert from their dogs, it is detected early enough to be treatable with a positive outcome.

So, if your dogs started acting weirdly around you or your family, listen to them and visit a Doctor!!!

Cancer Biomarkers and Targets

Biomarkers or molecular markers are the biological molecule present in the blood, cell lines, and tissues and in other body fluids as an indicator for the normal as well as the abnormal processes of the body and also works as a measurable indicator of any underlying biological condition or disease. Various types of biomolecules such as DNA (genes), RNA, proteins or hormones, can serve as biomarkers, as they all take part in various metabolic processes of the body.

Biomarkers play an essential role in the field of Oncology. It is said that the understanding of Cancer biomarkers is key to developing a right treatment plan for an individual. But notably, Biomarkers are not limited to Cancer. There are several biomarkers for heart diseases, infections, multiple sclerosis, and many other diseases.

Cancer biomarker refers to any molecule or metabolic changes inside the body that is characteristic of the presence of Cancer in the body. It may be produced by the tumors itself or by other cells and tissues, in response to the presence of Cancer in the body.

Cancer biomarkers may include proteins and other biomolecules, gene mutations, missing genes, and various gene rearrangements. Each of them works and reacts differently within the body.

In clinical research, and medicine, Cancer biomarkers are primarily used in three ways:

  • For the diagnosis of the condition as in case of early stage Cancers,
  • To predict how aggressively Cancer will grow and are therefore useful for assessing prognosis, and
  • For the prediction of a patient’s response to the treatment.

Function of Cancer Biomarkers

  • Risk assessment: Offers a quantitative way to determine predisposal of an individual for the particular type of Cancer. For example- overexpression of the HER2 protein, hypermethylation of MYOD1, CDH1, and CDH13 for cervical Cancer, etc.,
  • Diagnosis: determining the origin of Cancer whether they are primary or metastatic by screening the chromosomal alterations found on the cells.
  • Prognosis and prediction of the treatment: when an individual has been diagnosed with Cancer, certain biomarkers determine the aggressiveness of an identified Cancer. Such biomarkers include HER2/neu gene amplification for breast Cancers, elevated estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) expression, etc.
  • Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics: As each individual have a different genetic makeup, they respond to treatments, and drug differently. In some cases, a certain drug can result into a dangerous condition, such as in case of Individuals with mutations in the TPMT gene to metabolize large amount of a leukemia drug, potentially causes a fatal drop in white blood count for such patients. Hence, Cancer biomarkers are used to determine the most effective treatment regime.
  • Monitoring treatment response: Such biomarkers shows how a treatment is working overtime and how well an individual is responding to the treatment.

Radiation in Medicine

Radiation is the transmission or traveling of the energy through space or a material medium in the form of waves or particles. Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is the most familiar form of radiation that we know. Except for the UV radiation, there are some higher-energy kinds of radiation, collectively known as Ionizing Radiation (such as α, β, or γ radiation) that are present on Earth and we all are exposed to it in minute doses through rock, soil, space, and air. But exposure to the higher levels of such radiation is harmful and dangerous and thus, the exposure should be controlled. The use of radiation in the medical field has made a huge evolution. Today, about one-third of the entire medical specialties involve radiation or radioactivity, right from the diagnosis – to the treatment.

Radiation is used in both nuclear medicine and radiology, but the difference is:

  • In general radiology, the X-rays enters the body from the outside source through space and creates a fixed or still image of the body, while in Nuclear medicine; a small amount of radioactive material (radiotracers, or radiopharmaceuticals) is administered internally, via injection, swallowing or inhalation inside the body into the bloodstream. This radioactive material travels through the area to be examined and produces γ-rays which are detected by the computers to create images.
  • The traditional imaging systems of radiology (X-rays, Ultrasound, CT scans, MRI) creates only a fixed or still image of the body showing the anatomy or structure of the body, while the nuclear imaging techniques (PET, SPECT) show the physiological function of the area to be investigated by producing two-dimensional or three-dimensional images.
  • In addition, through Nuclear medicine imaging techniques, a specific organ or tissue can be examined such as brain, lungs, and heart, unlike in general radiology imaging procedures where it produces the image of the whole area such as the chest cavity or abdominal cavity.


Both of these medical imaging specialties are used to diagnose and determine the severity of the disease and are involved in their effective treatment.

These imaging procedures are non-invasive or have the minimal invasion, less risk, a shorter recovery time and are less painful than the surgical treatments.

It also improves the cancer diagnosis with early detection and also involves its effective treatment (known as radiation oncology).


As with all the medical procedures, radiation techniques also involve a level of risk but the benefits are significantly greater than any risk involved.

  • Exposure to the radiation in such techniques carries with it a minute increase in the risk of developing cancer later in life, especially to the radiologists and physicians.
  • In nuclear medicine, there is a small level of risk associated with the radiotracers administered into the body such as allergic reactions which are very rare as the type of the radioactive materials used by the specialist, depends on the medical history of the patient.

Children’s (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

17Radiology and Oncology 2019 today announced an important milestone in computed tomography (CT) scanning for the centre in Abu Dhabi.

Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless diagnostic Process that uses special X-ray tools to produce complete photographs of your child’s blood vessels, bones, soft tissues and internal organs. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate injury after trauma.

What is Children’s CT?

Most commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is an indicative therapeutic test that, like conventional X-rays, generates multiple images or pictures of the core of the body.

The cross-sectional illustrations produced during a CT scan can be reformatted in various planes, and can even produce three-dimensional images. These photographs can be observed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.

CT pictures of internal organs, delicate tissue and veins give more prominent part than regular X-rays, particularly of blood vessels acnes.

CT scan might be directed on babies, new-born children and young people.

Some common uses of the system

  • CT is utilized to help analyse a wide assortment of circumstances because of torment or weakness.
  • CT may also be performed to evaluate blood vessels throughout the body.
  • CT is the most commonly used imaging method for evaluating the chest
  • It is used to obtain very detailed pictures of the heart and blood vessels in children, even new-born infants.
  • CT is well-suited for imaging diseases or impairment of vital organs in the stomach including the kidney, spleen and the liver.
  • CT scans can help in detect sores or tumours in the pelvis and assess for masses in the urinary region
  • CT is an added example of new medical technology to help doctors specifically to diagnose disease. Patients with heart disease require specific diagnoses, and they frequently want them quick.

Cancer: Establishing metastasis

Human VRK1 Is an Early Response Gene and Its Loss Causes a Block in Cell Cycle Progression??Radiology
In mammalian cells, the regulatory proteins that control the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cellular interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a new serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes.

Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 could help cancer take root in new parts of the body. It was discovered that VRK1 is necessary for the mesenchymal to epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastases. The expression of the VRK1 gene is activated by the addition of serum to the cells deprived of food, which indicates that it is required for the exit of the G0 phase and the entry in G1; a response that parallels the re-expression of MYC, FOS and CCND1 genes (cyclin D1), suggesting that VRK1 is an early response gene. The expression of the VRK1 gene is also closed by serum extraction.

The promoter of the human VRK1 gene cloned in a luciferase reporter responds similarly to serum. In response to serum, the expression level of the VRK1 protein has a positive correlation with cell proliferation markers such as phosphorylated Rb or PCNA, and is inversely correlated with cell cycle inhibitors such as p27. Removal of VRK1 by siRNA results in a G1 block in cell division and in the loss of phosphorylated Rb, cyclin D1 and other proliferation markers. The elimination of VRK1 by siRNA induces a reduction of cell proliferation.. VRK1 is colocalized with p63 in proliferating areas of squamous epithelium, and identifies a subpopulation in the basal layer.

They observed that cells with high levels of VRK1 were more apt to form cell-to-cell connections and had lower levels of mesenchymal markers that are often present in cancer cells. On the contrary, the cells seemed to undergo the opposite transition, from mesenchymal to epithelial. The cells were much less likely to migrate. If high levels of VRK1 caused cancer cells to migrate more slowly, perhaps VRK1 was necessary to allow cells to colonize a new area of ​​the body.


VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry into G1, and due to its involvement in normal cell proliferation and division, it could be a new target for the development of inhibitors of cell proliferation. In addition, VRK1 may one day serve as a biomarker for aggressive cancers, which could inform oncologists as they decide on more advanced or conservative treatments.

CD-8 cells to fight Cancer and Chronic Infections

Immune system has several components like cytokines, lymphocytes, macrophages etc. CD-8 cell is one major component produced by the host immune system to fight pathogens like bacteria, virus etc. Upon exposure to any invading pathogen like virus, CD8 cells multiply rapidly. At the initial stage they are effector cells, acting like foot soldiers and killing the pathogen. Once the pathogen is destroyed, most of these effector cells suicide to not continue attacking the body’s own cells. Few effector CD8 cells that survive become memory cells guarding the host from the respective pathogen and enacting faster combat reaction upon exposure to same pathogen.1

CAR T cell therapy gathered lot of attention from the public for its effective use in immunotherapy against cancer and chronic infections like HIV. Application of CD-8 cells in immunotherapy has been discussed recently. The usual problem encountered is that CD8 cells get exhausted or stop functioning properly in cancer and HIV infections.  However recent research by Shomyseh Sanjabi and her team have discovered a great finding which could offer a greater option against cancer and chronic infections.

The team identified 2 molecules namely Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2. These molecules are known to modify the survival and development of effector and memory CD8 cells respectively. Upon animal model research, the team found that in absence of these molecules in CD8 cells, the CD8 effector cells survived in larger numbers and became memory cells. The memory cells without these molecules had better protective capacity against bacterial pathogens than normal CD8 memory cells with Sprouty molecules.

In tumors, as tumor cells consume lot of glucose the effector CD8cells get killed due to glucose deprive however the CD8 cells without Sprouty 1& 2 molecules can survive and function in a tumor environment upon consuming less glucose. Also the memory CD8 cells without Sprouty molecules can tackle cancer cells and also cells activated with latent virus in viral infections. Hence the memory plays a good role in immunotherapy and the future engineering of CAR Tcells in combination with genome editing technique like CRISPR can help in future to eliminate the Sprouty molecules and employ CD8 cells against cancer and infected cells.

Brain scans show why people get aggressive after the drink


MRI study highlights how sections of the brain that rage aggression shut off when people intake alcohol.

Scientist and Researcher Professionals have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigates that measure blood circulation in the brain to completely explain why people often become belligerent and stringent after dissipating alcohol. After barely a couple of drinks, the researchers remarked variations in the performance of the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the part commonly associated with moderating a person’s levels of aggressiveness.

According to most opinions, alcohol-related aggressiveness is affected by alterations in the prefrontal cortex. The members were each offered two drinks comprising vodka or placebo drinks without any alcohol.

 While resting in an MRI scanner, the members later had to compete in a task which has constantly been practiced over the past 50 years to recognize levels of aggressiveness in acknowledgement to inducement.

The functional magnetic resonance imaging allowed the researchers to see which areas of the brain were triggered when the task was performed.

They could also distinguish the variation in scans between members who had drunk alcohol and those who hadn’t. Being provoked was found to have no impact on participants’ neural acknowledgements. Yet, when acting aggressively, there was a dip in activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brains of those who had applied alcoholic drinks. This dampening influence was also observed in the regions of the cerebellum that are associated reward. Also, increased activity was noted in the hippocampus, the part of the brain correlated with people’s memory.

 The consequences are mostly compatible with a developing body of research about the neural source of an attack, and how it is triggered by changes in the way that the prefrontal cortex, the limbic system and reward-related regions of the brain function. The results of the current study are also consistent with several psychological theories of alcohol-related aggression.

 Radiology and Oncology 2019  planning can be a complete process comprising of a number of health-care experts, including researchers and consultants (radiologists and oncologists),nurses, radiographers and other technicians at the 3rd  World congress on Radiology and Oncology going to be held at Abu Dhabi, UAE

Women’s polycystic ovary disorder may cause increased hazard of autism in newborns


Autism, Extreme introvertedness, or extraordinary introvertedness run clutter, insinuates to a extend of conditions characterized by challenges with social aptitudes, repetitive behaviours, talk and nonverbal communication, as well as by one of a kind qualities and contrasts. We now know that there’s not one autism but numerous sorts, caused by diverse combinations of genetic and natural impacts2

PCOS could be a condition caused by excess release of testosterone which comes about in postponed onset of adolescence, irregular menstrual cycles, and overabundance substantial hair. Children born to women with polycystic ovary disorder (PCOS) may be more likely to create extreme introvertedness, agreeing to a consider. PCOS may be a condition caused by tall testosterone which comes about in postponed onset of adolescence, unpredictable menstrual cycles, and abundance real hair. Past considers had showed up that extremely introverted children have lifted levels of “sex steroid” hormones counting testosterone which “masculinise” the baby’s body and brain. Debating on the increase level of hormones, the gather found that one conceivable source may be the mother.


In case the mother had higher levels of testosterone than regular, as is the case in ladies with PCOS, at that point a few of the hormone might cross the placenta amid pregnancy, uncovering her unborn child to more of this hormone, and changing the baby’s brain improvement, the discoveries appeared.

New investigate is making a differentiating us to understand the impacts of testosterone on the creating fetal brain, and on the child’s afterward conduct and intellect.

In any case, these hormonal impacts are not fundamentally free of hereditary components, as a mother or her child may have higher levels of the hormone for hereditary reasons, and testosterone can influence how genes work.

Other Factors which causes Autism in few cases:

  • Rubella (German measles) in the pregnant mother
  • Tuberous sclerosis (a rare genetic disorder that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain as well as in other vital organs)
  • Fragile X syndrome (the most common inherited form of intellectual disability)
  • Encephalitis (brain inflammation)
  • Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) – when the body lacks an enzyme needed for normal metabolism.
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Inherited Epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression

Epigenetics congress 2018

Epigenetics mechanisms modulated by the manner of environmental cues in conjunction with a food plan, disorder or our life-style take a primary function in control the desoxyribonucleic acid through switching genes on and off. Currently, researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg show strong proof that not solely the inherited deoxyribonucleic acid itself, however, in addition, the inherited epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression within the offspring. Moreover, the brand new insights through the science laboratory of Nicola Iovino describe for the primary time biological effects of this inherited data. The study proves that a mom’s epigenetic memory is vital for the development and survival of the new generation.

In our body, we discover over 250 completely different cell varieties. All of them contain the precise same desoxyribonucleic acid bases in just a similar order; but, liver or nerve cells look terribly totally different and have different skills. What makes the distinction may be a method referred to as epigenetics. Epigenetic modifications label specific regions of the desoxyribonucleic acid to draw in or keep proteins that activate genes. Thus, these modifications produce, step by step, the standard patterns of active and inactive desoxyribonucleic acid sequences for every cell variety. Moreover, contrary to the mounted sequence of ‘letters’ in our desoxyribonucleic acid, epigenetic marks may also amendment throughout our life and in response to our surroundings or modus vivendi. As an instance, smoking changes the epigenetic makeup of respiratory organ cells, eventually resulting in cancer. Alternative influences of external stimuli like stress, illness or diet also are imagined to be keeping within the epigenetic memory of cells.