Category Archives: Oncology

Radiation in Medicine

Radiation is the transmission or traveling of the energy through space or a material medium in the form of waves or particles. Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is the most familiar form of radiation that we know. Except for the UV radiation, there are some higher-energy kinds of radiation, collectively known as Ionizing Radiation (such as α, β, or γ radiation) that are present on Earth and we all are exposed to it in minute doses through rock, soil, space, and air. But exposure to the higher levels of such radiation is harmful and dangerous and thus, the exposure should be controlled. The use of radiation in the medical field has made a huge evolution. Today, about one-third of the entire medical specialties involve radiation or radioactivity, right from the diagnosis – to the treatment.

Radiation is used in both nuclear medicine and radiology, but the difference is:

  • In general radiology, the X-rays enters the body from the outside source through space and creates a fixed or still image of the body, while in Nuclear medicine; a small amount of radioactive material (radiotracers, or radiopharmaceuticals) is administered internally, via injection, swallowing or inhalation inside the body into the bloodstream. This radioactive material travels through the area to be examined and produces γ-rays which are detected by the computers to create images.
  • The traditional imaging systems of radiology (X-rays, Ultrasound, CT scans, MRI) creates only a fixed or still image of the body showing the anatomy or structure of the body, while the nuclear imaging techniques (PET, SPECT) show the physiological function of the area to be investigated by producing two-dimensional or three-dimensional images.
  • In addition, through Nuclear medicine imaging techniques, a specific organ or tissue can be examined such as brain, lungs, and heart, unlike in general radiology imaging procedures where it produces the image of the whole area such as the chest cavity or abdominal cavity.


Both of these medical imaging specialties are used to diagnose and determine the severity of the disease and are involved in their effective treatment.

These imaging procedures are non-invasive or have the minimal invasion, less risk, a shorter recovery time and are less painful than the surgical treatments.

It also improves the cancer diagnosis with early detection and also involves its effective treatment (known as radiation oncology).


As with all the medical procedures, radiation techniques also involve a level of risk but the benefits are significantly greater than any risk involved.

  • Exposure to the radiation in such techniques carries with it a minute increase in the risk of developing cancer later in life, especially to the radiologists and physicians.
  • In nuclear medicine, there is a small level of risk associated with the radiotracers administered into the body such as allergic reactions which are very rare as the type of the radioactive materials used by the specialist, depends on the medical history of the patient.

Children’s (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

17Radiology and Oncology 2019 today announced an important milestone in computed tomography (CT) scanning for the centre in Abu Dhabi.

Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless diagnostic Process that uses special X-ray tools to produce complete photographs of your child’s blood vessels, bones, soft tissues and internal organs. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate injury after trauma.

What is Children’s CT?

Most commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is an indicative therapeutic test that, like conventional X-rays, generates multiple images or pictures of the core of the body.

The cross-sectional illustrations produced during a CT scan can be reformatted in various planes, and can even produce three-dimensional images. These photographs can be observed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.

CT pictures of internal organs, delicate tissue and veins give more prominent part than regular X-rays, particularly of blood vessels acnes.

CT scan might be directed on babies, new-born children and young people.

Some common uses of the system

  • CT is utilized to help analyse a wide assortment of circumstances because of torment or weakness.
  • CT may also be performed to evaluate blood vessels throughout the body.
  • CT is the most commonly used imaging method for evaluating the chest
  • It is used to obtain very detailed pictures of the heart and blood vessels in children, even new-born infants.
  • CT is well-suited for imaging diseases or impairment of vital organs in the stomach including the kidney, spleen and the liver.
  • CT scans can help in detect sores or tumours in the pelvis and assess for masses in the urinary region
  • CT is an added example of new medical technology to help doctors specifically to diagnose disease. Patients with heart disease require specific diagnoses, and they frequently want them quick.

Cancer: Establishing metastasis

Human VRK1 Is an Early Response Gene and Its Loss Causes a Block in Cell Cycle Progression??Radiology
In mammalian cells, the regulatory proteins that control the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cellular interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a new serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes.

Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 could help cancer take root in new parts of the body. It was discovered that VRK1 is necessary for the mesenchymal to epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastases. The expression of the VRK1 gene is activated by the addition of serum to the cells deprived of food, which indicates that it is required for the exit of the G0 phase and the entry in G1; a response that parallels the re-expression of MYC, FOS and CCND1 genes (cyclin D1), suggesting that VRK1 is an early response gene. The expression of the VRK1 gene is also closed by serum extraction.

The promoter of the human VRK1 gene cloned in a luciferase reporter responds similarly to serum. In response to serum, the expression level of the VRK1 protein has a positive correlation with cell proliferation markers such as phosphorylated Rb or PCNA, and is inversely correlated with cell cycle inhibitors such as p27. Removal of VRK1 by siRNA results in a G1 block in cell division and in the loss of phosphorylated Rb, cyclin D1 and other proliferation markers. The elimination of VRK1 by siRNA induces a reduction of cell proliferation.. VRK1 is colocalized with p63 in proliferating areas of squamous epithelium, and identifies a subpopulation in the basal layer.

They observed that cells with high levels of VRK1 were more apt to form cell-to-cell connections and had lower levels of mesenchymal markers that are often present in cancer cells. On the contrary, the cells seemed to undergo the opposite transition, from mesenchymal to epithelial. The cells were much less likely to migrate. If high levels of VRK1 caused cancer cells to migrate more slowly, perhaps VRK1 was necessary to allow cells to colonize a new area of ​​the body.


VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry into G1, and due to its involvement in normal cell proliferation and division, it could be a new target for the development of inhibitors of cell proliferation. In addition, VRK1 may one day serve as a biomarker for aggressive cancers, which could inform oncologists as they decide on more advanced or conservative treatments.

CD-8 cells to fight Cancer and Chronic Infections

Immune system has several components like cytokines, lymphocytes, macrophages etc. CD-8 cell is one major component produced by the host immune system to fight pathogens like bacteria, virus etc. Upon exposure to any invading pathogen like virus, CD8 cells multiply rapidly. At the initial stage they are effector cells, acting like foot soldiers and killing the pathogen. Once the pathogen is destroyed, most of these effector cells suicide to not continue attacking the body’s own cells. Few effector CD8 cells that survive become memory cells guarding the host from the respective pathogen and enacting faster combat reaction upon exposure to same pathogen.1

CAR T cell therapy gathered lot of attention from the public for its effective use in immunotherapy against cancer and chronic infections like HIV. Application of CD-8 cells in immunotherapy has been discussed recently. The usual problem encountered is that CD8 cells get exhausted or stop functioning properly in cancer and HIV infections.  However recent research by Shomyseh Sanjabi and her team have discovered a great finding which could offer a greater option against cancer and chronic infections.

The team identified 2 molecules namely Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2. These molecules are known to modify the survival and development of effector and memory CD8 cells respectively. Upon animal model research, the team found that in absence of these molecules in CD8 cells, the CD8 effector cells survived in larger numbers and became memory cells. The memory cells without these molecules had better protective capacity against bacterial pathogens than normal CD8 memory cells with Sprouty molecules.

In tumors, as tumor cells consume lot of glucose the effector CD8cells get killed due to glucose deprive however the CD8 cells without Sprouty 1& 2 molecules can survive and function in a tumor environment upon consuming less glucose. Also the memory CD8 cells without Sprouty molecules can tackle cancer cells and also cells activated with latent virus in viral infections. Hence the memory plays a good role in immunotherapy and the future engineering of CAR Tcells in combination with genome editing technique like CRISPR can help in future to eliminate the Sprouty molecules and employ CD8 cells against cancer and infected cells.

Brain scans show why people get aggressive after the drink


MRI study highlights how sections of the brain that rage aggression shut off when people intake alcohol.

Scientist and Researcher Professionals have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigates that measure blood circulation in the brain to completely explain why people often become belligerent and stringent after dissipating alcohol. After barely a couple of drinks, the researchers remarked variations in the performance of the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the part commonly associated with moderating a person’s levels of aggressiveness.

According to most opinions, alcohol-related aggressiveness is affected by alterations in the prefrontal cortex. The members were each offered two drinks comprising vodka or placebo drinks without any alcohol.

 While resting in an MRI scanner, the members later had to compete in a task which has constantly been practiced over the past 50 years to recognize levels of aggressiveness in acknowledgement to inducement.

The functional magnetic resonance imaging allowed the researchers to see which areas of the brain were triggered when the task was performed.

They could also distinguish the variation in scans between members who had drunk alcohol and those who hadn’t. Being provoked was found to have no impact on participants’ neural acknowledgements. Yet, when acting aggressively, there was a dip in activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brains of those who had applied alcoholic drinks. This dampening influence was also observed in the regions of the cerebellum that are associated reward. Also, increased activity was noted in the hippocampus, the part of the brain correlated with people’s memory.

 The consequences are mostly compatible with a developing body of research about the neural source of an attack, and how it is triggered by changes in the way that the prefrontal cortex, the limbic system and reward-related regions of the brain function. The results of the current study are also consistent with several psychological theories of alcohol-related aggression.

 Radiology and Oncology 2019  planning can be a complete process comprising of a number of health-care experts, including researchers and consultants (radiologists and oncologists),nurses, radiographers and other technicians at the 3rd  World congress on Radiology and Oncology going to be held at Abu Dhabi, UAE

Women’s polycystic ovary disorder may cause increased hazard of autism in newborns


Autism, Extreme introvertedness, or extraordinary introvertedness run clutter, insinuates to a extend of conditions characterized by challenges with social aptitudes, repetitive behaviours, talk and nonverbal communication, as well as by one of a kind qualities and contrasts. We now know that there’s not one autism but numerous sorts, caused by diverse combinations of genetic and natural impacts2

PCOS could be a condition caused by excess release of testosterone which comes about in postponed onset of adolescence, irregular menstrual cycles, and overabundance substantial hair. Children born to women with polycystic ovary disorder (PCOS) may be more likely to create extreme introvertedness, agreeing to a consider. PCOS may be a condition caused by tall testosterone which comes about in postponed onset of adolescence, unpredictable menstrual cycles, and abundance real hair. Past considers had showed up that extremely introverted children have lifted levels of “sex steroid” hormones counting testosterone which “masculinise” the baby’s body and brain. Debating on the increase level of hormones, the gather found that one conceivable source may be the mother.


In case the mother had higher levels of testosterone than regular, as is the case in ladies with PCOS, at that point a few of the hormone might cross the placenta amid pregnancy, uncovering her unborn child to more of this hormone, and changing the baby’s brain improvement, the discoveries appeared.

New investigate is making a differentiating us to understand the impacts of testosterone on the creating fetal brain, and on the child’s afterward conduct and intellect.

In any case, these hormonal impacts are not fundamentally free of hereditary components, as a mother or her child may have higher levels of the hormone for hereditary reasons, and testosterone can influence how genes work.

Other Factors which causes Autism in few cases:

  • Rubella (German measles) in the pregnant mother
  • Tuberous sclerosis (a rare genetic disorder that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain as well as in other vital organs)
  • Fragile X syndrome (the most common inherited form of intellectual disability)
  • Encephalitis (brain inflammation)
  • Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) – when the body lacks an enzyme needed for normal metabolism.
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Inherited Epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression

Epigenetics congress 2018

Epigenetics mechanisms modulated by the manner of environmental cues in conjunction with a food plan, disorder or our life-style take a primary function in control the desoxyribonucleic acid through switching genes on and off. Currently, researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg show strong proof that not solely the inherited deoxyribonucleic acid itself, however, in addition, the inherited epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression within the offspring. Moreover, the brand new insights through the science laboratory of Nicola Iovino describe for the primary time biological effects of this inherited data. The study proves that a mom’s epigenetic memory is vital for the development and survival of the new generation.

In our body, we discover over 250 completely different cell varieties. All of them contain the precise same desoxyribonucleic acid bases in just a similar order; but, liver or nerve cells look terribly totally different and have different skills. What makes the distinction may be a method referred to as epigenetics. Epigenetic modifications label specific regions of the desoxyribonucleic acid to draw in or keep proteins that activate genes. Thus, these modifications produce, step by step, the standard patterns of active and inactive desoxyribonucleic acid sequences for every cell variety. Moreover, contrary to the mounted sequence of ‘letters’ in our desoxyribonucleic acid, epigenetic marks may also amendment throughout our life and in response to our surroundings or modus vivendi. As an instance, smoking changes the epigenetic makeup of respiratory organ cells, eventually resulting in cancer. Alternative influences of external stimuli like stress, illness or diet also are imagined to be keeping within the epigenetic memory of cells.

Effect of Cancer Drugs on Their Targets


Researchers have built up a strategy to quantify how well disease drugs achieve their objectives inside the body. It indicates singular disease cells in a tumor progressively, uncovering which cells associate with the medication and which cells the medication neglects to reach. The discoveries could enable clinicians to choose the best course and conveyance of treatment for malignancy patients later on. Cancer cells will be cells over which the human body has lost control. The way that they are changed body cells makes everything the more hard to battle them adequately – whatever damages them as a rule additionally hurts the solid cells in the body. This is the reason it is imperative to get some answers concerning the malignancy cells’ specific shortcomings.

In specific kinds of breast and ovarian cancer, for instance, such a shortcoming is given by transformations in qualities that assume a part in DNA repair. Treating tumor cells of this kind with a gathering of recently endorsed drugs – supposed PARP inhibitors – makes it troublesome for these phones to imitate their DNA, and they at last die. Typical cells, nonetheless, can take care of such issues utilizing their flawless DNA repair hardware.

Effect of the drugs on cells: Researchers uncovered how PARP inhibitors secure their objective protein a dormant state on the cells’ DNA and how this entangles DNA replication, which thus prompts DNA harm. In the event that this harm isn’t repaired rapidly, the cells can never again reproduce and inevitably kick the bucket. The new approach empowers scientists to dissect the underlying response of disease cells to PARP inhibitors with extraordinary exactness. What’s extraordinary about the simple delicate system is the high number of individual cells that can be examined simultaneously with high determination utilizing the computerized magnifying instruments. Tumor cells change and in this way respond diversely to drugs contingent upon their transformations and the cell cycle stage they are in. Researchers have now figured out how to make these distinctions unmistakable and measure them absolutely.

Testing of Cancer Cells: Outside of the research facility, the accomplishment of PARP inhibitors and other tumor solution is confused by the way that in a few patients the malignancy returns – after a specific point, the growth cells wind up safe and never again react to the medications. The high-throughput technique utilized by researchers is especially helpful for this sort of issue: Cells can be tried in various conditions with short turnover times, and particular qualities can be disposed of one by one of every a focused on the way. Doing as such can uncover which cell capacities are required for a specific medication to produce results. Furthermore, components of medication blends can be dissected in incredible detail. In the examination, researchers have effectively distinguished such a mix, which hinders growth cell multiplication to an altogether higher degree than the mix’s individual segments without anyone else’s input.


October-Cancer-Awareness-Month (002)


As October is coming closer, means another breast cancer awareness month with buildings and bridges aglow in pink. We’ll all probably start seeing pinker on TV commercials and our favorite products, but what that means we were not thinking about breast cancer in other months or the cancer survivor will only cure in the month of October.

While Breast Cancer Awareness Month is only October but that doesn’t mean that our fight against breast cancer is in only October. What about rest of the year, breast cancer is something we all need to be aware of all year round.

Twenty-five years ago, in the United States, 110 women died of breast cancer every day. Twenty-five years and billions of private and public research dollars later, that number is 110. Every day, not much progress, is it?

To help you keep breast cancer awareness in mind January through December here are a few action items you can do every month in the coming year.

November- Take a Breast Cancer Awareness Quiz.
What’s your breast cancer IQ? Take this informative quiz, you’ll learn about the ties between breast cancer and family history, male breast cancer, and even mammograms.

December- Schedule your Mammogram.
When was the last time you had a mammogram? There are differing beliefs on when women should start mammograms and how often they need them, but most health providers agree that mammograms are an essential tool for catching breast cancer early. If you’re overdue for your mammogram, schedule one today. Even if you have breast implants you still need mammograms

January- Hit the Gym.
Going to the gym isn’t just a good New Year’s resolution; it is an excellent way to cut your breast cancer risk. Evidence shows that regular exercise can lower your chances of getting breast cancer. Staying active also fights obesity, another factor that can impact your likelihood of getting the disease.

 February- Breast Self-Exams save Lives

Do you know what your normal breast looks and feels like? Breast self-exams are easy to do and can be done in the comfort and privacy of your own home.

March- Love Your Breasts.
When we think about breast cancer suddenly our breasts become something to be afraid of. Shed the fear and love your breasts. If you aren’t happy with the size or shape of your breasts, come talk with us about breast implants. Your breasts are something to celebrate, even if they can get cancer.

April- Donate
Breast cancer awareness and research are expensive and the many wonderful charities working hard to fight the disease need our help. If you can, consider making a donation to your favorite breast cancer charity.

May- Eat Healthy.
A healthy diet can help reduce your breast cancer risk. This month try adding some of these powerful breast cancer fighting foods into your diet. Yum!

June- Learn about Breast Reconstruction
The breast reconstruction decision is a tough one for many breast cancer survivors to make. The procedure is often misunderstood and many women don’t know their options. In June learn about it so if you or a loved one are ever faced with the decision you’ll know where to turn for answers.

July- Take a Walk.
Many breast cancer organizations sponsor awareness walks throughout the year. Find one in your area and walk for the cause. Whether you choose a local Making Strides against Breast Cancer event, you’ll be doing your part to fight breast cancer while making some new friends too.

August- Quit Smoking.
Smoking isn’t good for your health and we all know it. Make the commitment to stop smoking. Try and try again if you struggle or slip up. Quitting tobacco is hard, but you can do it. Your breasts will thank you.

September- Share your Voice.
You can make a difference in the fight against breast cancer without ever leaving your own home. Share your voice by connecting and sharing with breast cancer organizations online using social media tools like Facebook and Twitter.

October- Breast Cancer Awareness Month
After a year of breast cancer awareness activities October will likely hold new meaning for you. Use this Breast Cancer Awareness Month to educate friends and family and to renew your commitment to fighting breast cancer.

It is time to get real about ending breast cancer. Take all of that energy pushing for awareness and let’s come together to achieve the deadline. It’s time to give up hope and take up action.

Otherwise, how will you remember breast cancer all year round?


Intimacy after Cervical Cancer

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There were an expected 266,000 deaths from cervical cancer worldwide in 2012, representing 7.5% of all female growth deaths. Right around the vast majority of (87%) cervical cancer deaths happen in the less developed areas. Mortality fluctuates 18-overlap between the diverse districts of the world, with rates running from under 2 for every 100,000 in Western Asia, Western Europe, and Australia/New Zealand to more than 20 for each 100,000 in Melanesia (20.6), Middle (22.2) and Eastern (27.6) Africa.

Having undergone treatment for cervical cancer, the thought of having sex may be the last thing on women mind, but for some women, sexual intimacy and pleasure plays an important part in their relationships.

Both were diagnosed with cervical malignancy and experiencing treatment can influence how a lady feels about herself sexually. A few medications for cervical cancer, for example, radiotherapy and hysterectomy, can cause physical changes which may influence a lady’s sexual coexistence however huge numbers of these impacts can be anticipated or treated.

Undergoing surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy may affect the way in which you now view your body and your sexuality, in addition to affecting your relationships, both physically and emotionally. This can impact upon your sexual desire and arousal, as well as your ability to have penetrative sex and reach orgasm.

Younger women who have cancer can experience a surgical or medical menopause, which can affect their sex lives. Coping with a cancer diagnosis and going through debilitating treatment, to be left with a low or no libido and physical symptoms, is life changing. Some women are sadly infertile after treatment, impacting further upon their health. However, there are ways in which to overcome menopausal symptoms that affect your sex life.

If you find you are experiencing sexual problems, talk to your doctor or clinical nurse specialist (CNS) who can offer you advice or refer you for psychosexual counselling.

Rethinking the ways in which you enjoy sexual intimacy and pleasure through self-help can help you to continue to enjoy a good sex life, or even experience a better one!

It is important to realize that getting back to sex after treatment is a gradual process and cannot be rushed. Taking your time and going at your own pace will ensure a greater success at returning to normal sexual activity. Also having a supportive partner can speed up the recovery process too.

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