Category Archives: Obesity

Understand Maternal Obesity Before You Regret

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Obesity is the root cause of many diseases and it is the major health issue for public. It has been linked to several health problems such as cancer, heart diseases, hypertension etc. It also has an adverse effect during pregnancy as it can cause complications in pregnancy by increasing the mother’s risk of having gestational diabetes, preterm birth, preeclampsia or baby with birth defects. Maternal obesity is related to many severe outcomes for the infant, which can persist into adulthood such as heart disease, mortality and type-2 diabetes.

Maternal obesity also compromises immune system of the babies. Researches have proven that pre-pregnancy maternal weight plays a significant role on the neonate’s immune system. The immune system of the babies born to obese mothers gets comprised very early in baby’s life. The researchers analysed the umbilical cord blood sample of babies born to mothers who are lean, obese and overweight. It was found that pre-pregnancy maternal weight has a major impact on the immune system of neonate hence putting such babies at high risk for diseases such as asthma and heart diseases.

Several studies have linked maternal obesity (pregnancy starting with excess weight and gaining more weight during pregnancy) to a very high risk of asthma and cardiovascular diseases in children. These studies used established BMI (Body Mass Index) category for sorting mothers participating in the study. BMI 25 to 30 was considered as overweight and mother with 30 or higher BMI was considered as obese. Participating mothers were all non-smokers, had no diabetes and had uncomplicated gestation term.

The result of this study indicated that specific immune cells in circulation that is monocytes and dendritic cells, isolated from babies born to mother with higher BMI were unable to properly respond to bacterial antigens in comparison with babies born to lean mother. Babies born to mother with high BMI also showed reduction in CD4 T-cell. These two changes found in the results can compromise the responses to infection and vaccination.

Later it was also found that eosinophil; cells responsible for allergic response and asthma pathogenesis were also reduced significantly in the umbilical cord blood of the babies who are born to obese mom. The reason behind this observation is assumed to be that these cells have already been moved to lungs and hence may have increased the incidence of asthma which has been observed in children who are born to obese mother later in life.

These researches showed the link between maternal obesity during pregnancy and neonatal immune outcomes and how this can affect the immunity of child which can persist for lifetime.

So, overweight or obese woman before planning to become pregnant should talk to their ob-gyn about their weight management. As obesity associated with low fertility and success rate of pregnancy so it has serious repercussions for maternal health.  Obesity and weight gain has a high risk of increasing preeclampsia, placental abruption, and gestational diabetes. So it is very important to talk about the ideal weight with doctor before entering into pregnancy.

Vitamin D supplements may promote weight reduction in obese children

1Vitamin D supplements may promote weight loss and reduce risk factors for future heart and metabolic disease in obese and overweight children. The findings indicate that vitamin D is the simple supplementation may be part of an effective strategy to tackle childhood obesity and reduce the risk of serious health problems, such as heart disease, in adulthood.

Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem worldwide, which leads to the development of expensive, debilitating and serious complications, including diabetes and heart disease, in later life. Vitamin D deficiency is stereotypically associated with impaired bone health, in recent years it has been increasingly linked with increased body fat accumulation and obesity, with the precise nature of this relationship currently under intense investigation by scientists. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the health and weight of obese children and adolescents had not yet been investigated.

In this study, researchers assessed 232 obese children and adolescents over 1 year, with 117 randomly assigned to receive vitamin D supplementation, in accordance with the guidelines on treatment and prevention of deficiency. Levels of vitamin D, body fat, and blood markers of liver function and heart health were assessed at the start of the study and 12 months later. The study reported that children given vitamin D supplements had significantly lower BMI, body fat and improved cholesterol levels after a year of supplementation.

These findings suggest that simple vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of obese and overweight children developing serious heart and metabolic complications in later life.

The team now plan to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the health of obese children and adolescents that already have unhealthy conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood glucose all of which increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

Although these initial findings indicate that vitamin D could be used in the treatment of obesity, there remains a lack of evidence on the safety and long-term effects of supplementation, particularly if there is no vitamin D deficiency. However, if your child is obese or overweight I recommend that you consult your primary care physician for advice, and consider having their vitamin D levels tested.

Endocrine cells in the brain impact the optimization of behavior

4An individual exposed to stress can usually rapidly adapt the own behavior to the specific situation. Biochemical messenger substances in the brain play a central role in this rapid transformation process. We know that hormones additionally have a stress regulating function, but that their effects are more slowly apparent. Using a combination of optical and genetic techniques, the research team has had the capacity to show that corticotrophs, the cell populations that prompts the adrenal cortex and produce the stress hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will quickly impact avoidance behavior immediately after the onset of a stress situation. This insight could add to the development of effective treatments which will facilitate the management of acute stress induced reactions or may even have the capacity to mitigate acute stress associated conditions.

The human body is controlled by the hormonal system and the nervous system. The hypothalamus situated in the middle of the basis of the brain has a key role here providing the link between the body and the different regions of the brain similarly as directly and indirectly controlling a progression of essential physiological vegetative functions. In addition, it is the most important control organ of the human endocrine system, because it regulates when and how much of a hormone is produced. Both the hypothalamus and its production of hormone are also subject to the impacts of emotional stress. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus and together they form a single functional unit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus incorporate the supposed releasing hormones, such as the corticotropin-releasing hormone. This stimulates the production of the adrenocorticotropic hormone in the pituitary gland. The adrenocorticotropic hormone is a hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary and it regulates the production of other hormones, such as the stress hormone cortisol.

It can be basically assumed that the neurotransmitters of the CNS quickly determine whether fight or flight behavior is to develop in a given situation. To date, medical science has conjectured that the stress-regulating effects of the hormones of the HPA axis come into play far more slowly. Stress researchers found it very problematic to establish the concrete role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rapid adaptation of behavior in a stress situation in more detail in standard animal models. This is because the location of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in mammals makes them difficult to access. To overcome these obstacles, the researcher decided to create an innovative optogenetic research technique. They managed to develop a hereditarily modified zebrafish larva in which they had the capacity to manipulate the activity of the HPA axis using light and subsequently observe the resultant changes to the responses of the altered cells.

The researchers introduced a synthetic enzyme into their animal model that elevates the levels of the intracellular messenger substance cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) only in the corticotropic cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Their rise is important for the release of hormones in the corticotropic cells of the anterior pituitary. The levels of the resulting so-called transgenetic animal stress hormones can be increased by means of exposure to light. This means the researchers can thus observe the accompanying changes to behavior.

The recently published research results that the corticotropic cells in the pituitary become directly active on the beginning of a stress situation that is seen as distressing. These then influence locomotion and avoidance behavior as well as the sensitivity to the stimulus. The specialists translate this as proof that the corticotropic cells in the pituitary play a significant role in the rapid adaptation of behavior to local environments identified as antagonistic.

Everything you need to know about gene therapy shown to cure type 2 diabetes and obesity in mice, researchers report

4A single supervision of an adeno-associated viral vector booming the Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 gene resulted in genetic manipulation of the liver, skeletal muscle or adipose tissue to rapidly enhance Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein. This protein is a hormone secreted naturally by several organs that acts on many tissues for the maintenance of correct energy metabolism. By inducing FGF21 production through gene therapy the animal lost weight and decreased insulin resistance, this causes the development of type 2 diabetes.

The therapy has been tested successfully in two different mouse models of obesity, induced either by genetic mutations or diet. Also, the researchers scrutinized that when administered to healthy mice, the gene therapy endorsed healthy aging and prevented age associated weight gain and insulin resistance.

After treatment with adeno-associated viral- Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, mice lost weight and reduced fat accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue; steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation of the liver were also reversed. This led to an increase in healthy aging and in insulin sensitivity without any adverse side effects.

The results have been reproduced after genetic manipulation of three different tissues to produce the Fibroblast Growth Factor 21. This gives flexibility to the treatment, since it permits to choose each time the most appropriate tissue and in case some impediment prevents manipulating any of the tissues, it can be applied to any of the others. When a tissue produces Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein and secretes it into the bloodstream, it will be distributed throughout the body.

The authors highlight the significance of these results, since the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity is growing at alarming rates around the world. Obesity also enhances the risk of mortality and indicates an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular and immune diseases, arthritis, hypertension, and some types of cancer.

The results also reveal that the scrutinization of the gene therapy ensured against the risk of tumor formation in the liver in response to a hyper caloric diet for a prolonged period of time.

The native Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein has a short half-life when administered using conventional procedures. For this reason, the pharmaceutical industry has developed Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 analogues and has already conducted clinical trials. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 mimetics, however require periodic administration to mediate clinical advantages and but may raise immunological issues related to the administration of exogenous proteins. The gene therapy vectors used by researcher, however, induce the mice to produce for many years the same FGF21 hormone naturally produced by the body, after a single administration and without any adverse effects.

For scientist the next step will be to test this therapy in larger animals before moving to clinical trials with patients. AAV-mediated gene therapy has been approved for the treatment of several diseases, due to its efficacy and safety profile. Similarly, there exists extensive clinical experience in applying adeno associated viral-mediated gene transfer to liver and skeletal muscle. Subsequently, the therapy described in this study comprises the basis for the future clinical translation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 gene transfer to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related comorbidities.

The ultimate revelation of Obesity and Cognitive Function

1High intensity interval exercise is commonly recognized as the most time effective and efficient way to exercise. It could likewise be an effective strategy to prevent and combat cognitive dysfunction in obese individuals.

Obesity reduces the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a protein in the brain that promotes the survival of neurons. Lower levels of this protein are associated with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and obesity. Although research has shown that obesity is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction, the mechanisms of this relationship are not fully understood.

To-date, studies on exercise and brain-derived neurotrophic factor response in obese individuals have only used continuous moderate intensity exercise without rest intervals. The researchers examine the modulatory role of obesity on exercise-induced BDNF release and to use an acute high-intensity interval exercise protocol as a practical model to measure the phenomena of brain-derived neurotrophic factor response release in both obese and normal-weight subjects. They also examined the potential relationship of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor with blood lactate and cortisol.

Results of study, show that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor response to acute high intensity interval exercise was greater than continuous moderate-intensity exercise in obese subjects when compared to normal weight subjects. These findings recommend that acute high intensity interval exercise may be a more effective protocol to upregulate brain derived neurotrophic factor expression in an obese population, cortisol levels and independent of increased lactate.

Other findings from the study show statistically significant differences between the obese and normal weight groups for body weight, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and waist circumferences and ratio. Also, both the normal and obese weight groups had comparable heart rate responses during both exercise protocols, producing a similar relative exercise intensity and effort between groups. Therefore, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor response was likely not influenced by disparities between aerobic fitness, with a greater level in obese subjects than normal weight subjects following acute high intensity interval exercise vs. continuous moderate intensity exercise.

Also, both the fat and typical weight bunches had equivalent pulse reactions amid both exercise conventions, delivering a comparable relative exercise power and exertion between gatherings.

Increased levels of cortisol have been shown to down regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression; however, this relationship in response to exercise still remains equivocal. Specifically, our study and others did not observe any correlation between cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor following either acute high-intensity exercise or continuous moderate-intensity exercise protocol, yet, the report of such is opposite.

Obesity-associated Liver cancer

Obesity has been on the rise in developed countries over the past few decades. In spite of the fact that weight has long been connected to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is additionally progressively being recognized as a leading hazard in numerous forms of cancer. For illustration, one recent study found that obesity-associated inflammation contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma, a sort of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in people around the world. Obesity drives a change of the gut microbiome, leading to the discharge of metabolites associated with the advancement of liver cancer.

Obesity spurs changes within the intestine microbiome that can lead to the production of DNA-damaging metabolites. Circulation of these metabolites through the intestine and liver initiate inflammatory and tumor-promoting components that produce more susceptible to liver cancer. Changes to the trillions of microbes that are found in the intestine in reaction to obesity can contribute to the formation of damaging microbial metabolites.

To explore how obesity might cause cancer, researchers turned to a mouse strain expressing a luminescent marker for a quality that actuates a condition called the senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Though senescence, the cessation of cell division that accompanies old age, has been appealed to suppress tumor formation, later prove shows that beneath certain conditions, senescent liver cells produce pro-inflammatory components that advance tumor growth. Cells in this senescent but pro-inflammatory state are showing SASP.

The researchers to begin with looked for a distinction in cancer development between obese mice encouraged high-fat count calories and incline mice encouraged a typical count calorie. Unable to observe a critical distinction, the researchers suspected that obesity-linked cancer may require an oncogenic stimulus. Beyond any doubt enough, when exposed to a chemical carcinogen, all of the obese mice developed liver cancer, while as it were 5 percent of the lean mice did. The obese mice too had higher levels of the SASP luminescent marker within the hepatic stellate cells the essential cell sort involved in the formation of scar tissue taking after liver damage suggesting that obesity invigorates the condition.

To explore how obesity might cause SASP, the researchers looked to recent prove that obesity is related to large-scale changes to the trillions of microscopic organisms within the gut that can produce harming inflammatory metabolites. Thinking that proliferating organisms within the gastrointestinal tracts of the obese mice can be triggering SASP, the researchers treated the mice with vancomycin or a cocktail of four antimicrobials to kill off most of the microbes. The treated mice appeared a noteworthy reduction in liver cancer, suggesting that certain intestine bacteria were undoubted to blame for the spike in cancer frequency. The discoveries involve hepatic stellate cells as a vital transducer of the signals that arise from the microbiome in changing the microenvironment to favor the rise of cancer

The researchers were moreover able to pinpoint a specific intestine microbes metabolite the known carcinogen deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the trigger for SASP. Repressing the generation of DCA suppressed liver cancer in obese mice, while antibiotic-treated mice given a high-fat diet counting DCA experienced a surge in liver cancer. So distant, They have been able to illustrate that the gene expression of incendiary components related with SASP can be actuated in human hepatic stellate cells in vitro. In addition, investigate by other bunches has found that human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver infection, a hazard factor for liver cancer, have been appeared to show signs of SASP in hepatic stellate cells.

Apple: The Original Super fruit

Apples keep the doctor away since they are one of nature’s best superfoods. There’s so much nourishment in apple fiber, antioxidants, vitamin C, phytonutrients and more! Apples are one of the most advantageous foods an individual can eat. They are high in fiber and vitamin C, and they are too low in calories, have only a follow of sodium, and no fat or cholesterol. Apples are high in polyphenols, which work as cancer prevention agents. These polyphenols are found in both the skin of the apples as well as within the meat, so to get the greatest amount of benefits, eat the skin of the apple. All of these benefits cruel that apples may moderate the impacts of asthma and Alzheimer’s infection, whereas helping with weight administration, bone wellbeing, pulmonary work, and gastrointestinal protection. Frequently called a “miracle food” and “nutritional powerhouse,” an apple a day truly may keep the doctor away.

Apple

Health benefits

  • Lower “bad” cholesterol: Procyanidins in apples (a type of flavonoid) have high antioxidant action and lower low-density lipids (LDL or “bad” cholesterol).
  • Help your heart: By decreasing cholesterol, the high polyphenol content from frequent apple consumption could also lower cardiovascular disease risk.
  • Stimulate healthy digestion: Apple polyphenols and fiber may also strengthen the microbiome in the gut.
  • Safeguard your mind: The high levels of antioxidants in apples protect against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and keep up brain performance.

Apples are loaded with vitamin C. Almost half of an apple’s vitamin C substance is fair beneath the skin, so it’s a great thought to eat apples with their skins. Apples contain insoluble fiber, which gives bulk within the intestinal tract. The bulk holds water that cleanses and moves nourishment rapidly through the digestive system. Regular intake of apples has been appeared to have cardiovascular benefits. This is often due to two properties of apples: the fiber that they contain and the polyphenols that are found in tall amounts. In expansion to digestion-aiding insoluble fiber, apples have solvent fiber, such as pectin. This supplement makes a difference anticipate cholesterol from building up within the lining of blood vessels, which in turn makes a difference avoid atherosclerosis and heart disease. When it comes to polyphenols and antioxidants, they work within the cell lining to diminish oxidation coming about in bringing down the chance of cardiovascular disease. Those who eat more apples have a lower hazard of stroke. Researchers credited the results to quercetin, an antioxidant in apples. There are respiratory benefits to eating apples, as well. Apples’ antioxidant benefits can offer assistance lower the chance of asthma. Eating entire apples gives filling, health-promoting fiber (up to 5 grams per apple!) and plant-based cancer prevention agents, who offer assistance support resistant work. Most are stacked sources of actually happening sugar (“apple juice concentrate”) furthermore water, making it higher in calories without keeping you fulfilled. Additionally, the preparing that removes pulp and clarifies the juice too diminishes the sum of cancer prevention agents.

Apples and cancer

The antioxidant substance of apple positions among the highest for natural products and inquire about appears that cancer prevention agents offer assistance avoid cancer. Lung cancer chance can particularly be brought down through apples’ cancer prevention agents, concurring to Flores. Individuals who routinely eat apples, onions and white grapefruit cut their lung cancer chance in half.

Health risks

Furthermore, apples are acidic, and the juice may harm tooth finish. Numerous individuals eat apples gradually, which increments the probability that acids will harm tooth finish. Snacking on acidic foods all through the day is the foremost harming, whereas eating them at supper times is much more secure. An apple a day is sweet, but taking all day to eat the apple can harm teeth. Dentists prescribe cutting up apples and chewing them with the back teeth. They moreover prescribe flushing the mouth with water to assist wash absent the corrosive and sugars.

Want to shed Weight? Eat Ghee..!!

Desi ghee, the one made from cow’s milk, is packed with essential nutrients that are so useful for the mind as well as body. If anyone is trying to slim down or get rid of the obstinate belly fat, you should include ghee in your daily diet and fire up their weight loss journey.

Do agree that ghee, the Indian version of clarified butter or Desi Ghee, is unhealthy and fattening? Though many people consider that ghee causes weight gain, health experts say the opposite. Actually, homemade and pure ghee or simply desi ghee, especially the one obtained from cow’s milk is packed with crucial nutrients that are so worthy for both mind and the body. Even modern science now agrees about the Ayurveda’s claims of cooking benefits and health of ghee.

Ghee is a vulnerable source of healthy fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, which helps in weight loss. Ghee is also enriched with essential amino acids, which assist in assembling the fat and making the fat cells to deflate in size which can later on be burnt for energy. Ghee is also a good source of memory-boosting omega-3-fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as omega-6 fatty acid interconnected linolenic acid (CLA). Studies have shown that omega-6 fatty acids helps to attain lean body mass and reduce fat mass, which in turn, helps in weight loss and weight management. Similarly, omega-3s may also help in losing inches and shedding body fat.

“The butyric acid along with combination with vitamins A, D, E, and K found in ghee aids in boosting immunity, keeps your hair and skin healthy, promotes gut health, lubricates joints and strengthens our bones,” says Loveneet Batra, nutritionist, Fortis Lafemme, New Delhi.

Apart from helping you lose weight, ghee also improves digestion and prevents inflammation. It can also protect us from cancer when consumed daily. It revitalize every cell functioning and helps looks after the overall health.

But remember over-consumption of ghee can cause some problems, keep in mind that it has high amount of saturated fats. It is advised to take not more than two to three teaspoons of ghee to lose weight and make sure you eat a healthy diet and indulge in daily exercises to burn belly fat and lose weight.

Eating Disorder

EatingIf you are obsessed over food, body weight and shape, there might be a chance of having Eating Disorder. People often think that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. But they are actually serious and often fatal mental illness and are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in an individual. According to various studies on eating disorders, the results found that the frequency of occurrence is much less in men as compared to adolescent girls and young adult women and a large proportion of eating disorder patients were exercising excessively during an acute phase of the disorder.

Types of Eating Disorders

They are divided into three diagnostic categories: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge-eating disorder.

  • Anorexia Nervosa, characterized by inadequate intake of food. In this condition, people may have unrealistic perception of overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight and thus, they severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. It can lead to damaging health effects, such as loss of bones and skin integrity, increases the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems, brain damage, multi-organ failure, and infertility. The mortality rate is highest in this disease as compared to other mental disorders, either due to complications associated with starvation or the patient commits suicide.
  • Bulimia Nervosa, characterized by an excessive intake of food followed by compensatory behaviors for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Although people usually maintain their relatively normal and healthy weight, but the irregular food behaviors can have injuring effects, such as chronically inflamed and sore throat, severe gastrointestinal problems, severe dehydration, and various heart difficulties resulting from an electrolyte imbalance.
  • Atypical eating disorders: There are many other types of eating disorders including Binge-eating Disorder (lack of control on eating), other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), Diabulimia, etc.

Cause of Eating Disorder

Although the cause of eating disorders is not clear but it seems like combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors plays an important role in the development of these illnesses.

  • A high proportion of individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (way the person sees themselves) also had some type of eating disorder.
  • Biological conditions such as hormone irregularities and nutrition deficiencies can also lead to eating disorders.
  • The environmental factors include Dysfunctional family dynamic, aesthetically oriented sports, Professions and careers, childhood traumas and other stressful transitions.

Treatment for an Eating Disorder

People often ignore such conditions which then results in severe adverse effects. Because of severity and complexities of these conditions, it has become necessary to establish a comprehensive and professional treatment. Addressed with medical doctors, nutritionists, and therapists for complete care, the treatment includes:

  • Individual, group, and/or family psychotherapy
  • Medical care and monitoring
  • Nutritional counselling
  • Medications

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes

Diabetic

The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affecting well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease and potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes.

In a study to the genetic variance of human metabolism, specialists have identified thirty one regions of the genome that were related with levels of circulating metabolites, i.e., small molecules that take part in different chemical reactions of human body. Many of the studied metabolites are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or related disorders, accordingly the loci uncovered may provide valuable insight into the biological processes leading to common diseases.

Lab tests used in the clinic typically monitor one or few circulating metabolites. The researchers used a high throughput method called nuclear magnetic resonance that can measure more than hundred different metabolites in one assay. This provides a considerably more in-depth picture of circulating metabolic compounds.

The group assayed 117 detailed metabolic markers, including amino acids, lipids and lipoprotein subclasses, and conducted the largest genome-wide association analysis of this type, in terms of study sample size of 8330 individuals and 7.7 million genomic markers studied. They revealed, in total, 31 genetic regions related with the blood levels of the metabolites.

Among the discoveries were two new loci influencing serum cholesterol subclass measures, well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease, and five new loci affecting levels of amino acids recently discovered to be potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The found variants have significant effects on the metabolite levels, the effect sizes being in general considerably larger than the known common variants for complex disease have.

Additionally, using twin pair samples, the scientists indicated that the metabolite levels show a high degree of heritability. This result suggests that the studied metabolites are describing better the underlying biology than the routinely used lab tests. In this way, the examination provides further support for the use of detailed data on multitude of metabolites in genetic studies to provide novel biological insights and to help in elucidating the processes leading to common diseases.