Category Archives: Microbiology

Microbiological Food Safety

Recent scientific advances have created the chance for new insight into microbiological food safety issues. With recent technological breakthroughs and new research, we are able to currently create food safety management systems that use science to assess risk and focus it in a versatile and effective manner. Knowing that amendment is inevitable, one ought to look ahead to identify new and emerging problems as they arise and be prepared to respond it in an effective and controlled manner.

Pathogens evolve; people’s behavior and psychology change, and production and processing developments modify the microbial surroundings. The expectation is to “solve” the problem of microbiological food safety to the point of having a zero-risk to food supply. On the other hand, due to technological development, we’ve got the chance to predict and address problems before they become pervasive.

The worst Pathogens as per Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates Norwalk-like viruses cause roughly 9.2 million cases of illness annually. However, of the estimated 9.2 million cases, only 124 individuals die, a fatality rate of 0.001%. On the other hand, Vibrio vulnificus causes a mere 47 cases annually; however, nearly 40 are fatal. When developing food safety management policies, we tend to struggle to balance the incidence of illness against the severity of illness, because both are vital.

Every a part of the food chain poses completely different risks at different stages. For instance, the relatively uncontrolled environment of production might present varied avenues for food to become contaminated by pathogens. The food processing environment can expose pathogens to environmental stresses that might create the surviving microorganisms better able to not only survive and adapt to future processing controls and additionally to overcome the body’s defences and cause sickness. Each pathogen/ food combination represents a combination of the many factors. Some may be best addressed through smart agricultural practices to forestall contamination within the initial place. Others may be best addressed by a control step in the processing environment to inactive any pathogens on the food. Others could also be best addressed by consumer food handling and preparation practices. Microbiological food safety is actually a farm-to-table issue.

Do egg allergies affected ones are safe to use Influenza vaccine?

Flu-vaccine-and-egg-allergyEgg allergy:

One of the most common allergy-causing foods for children is eggs. Usually we find symptoms and signs ranging from mild to severe and can include skin rashes, hives, nasal congestion, and vomiting or other digestive problems after eating eggs or foods containing eggs a few minutes to a few hours. Medications such as antihistamines may reduce signs and symptoms of a mild egg allergy as these drugs are taken after exposure to eggs but they aren’t effective for treating a severe reaction or preventing an allergic egg reaction.

Eggs in vaccines:

As per several types of the seasonal flu (influenza) vaccine contain small amounts of egg protein. No one with an egg allergy should receive the nasal spray version of the flu vaccine according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); also you shouldn’t get your flu shot at a drugstore or a supermarket pharmacy if you are allergic to eggs.

A flu vaccine should be given by injection which is safe for most egg-allergic people to deal with potential adverse effects, including anaphylaxis as long as it is equipped in a medical office. An injected flu vaccine (the recombinant vaccine) which does not contain any egg protein is approved for use in people ages 18 to 49. Yellow fever is most commonly found in parts of Africa and South America; which also contains egg protein. And hence both the World Health Organization and CDC state that a severe egg allergy is a contraindication for that vaccine.

Egg Allergy Management and Treatment:

  • Eating eggs is the best way to avoid egg allergy.
  • Food labels must be read and should be habituated in usage of alternatives with eggs recipes.
  • As some flu vaccines and the yellow fever vaccines contain egg protein in varying amounts it should be informed to the respective health care providers about your egg allergy and care should be taken.

Parasitic Diseases and Treatment

toxoplasmosis-causada-parasito-Toxoplasma-Fotolia_LPRIMA20161020_0073_26A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from its host and such branch of biology or medicine concerned with the study of these parasitic organisms is known as Parasitology. Three main classes of parasites that can cause disease in humans are protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. These parasites can cause diseases to humans, animals and even plants where a disease in an animal can easily be transferred to human, making the field very crucial. In such studies, Parasitologists conduct research in many fields because parasites occur numerously in the environment, from viruses and bacteria to insects and plants. Various methods of their diagnosis, treatment and their prevention & control are to be concerned seriously.

Effects of the host to the parasite:

  • Anti-parasitic immune responses
  • Non-sterilizing immunity
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Characteristics of parasitic disease:

Parasitosis which is a parasitic disease, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. As we know many parasites do not cause diseases but these parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals.


Mammals could be infected by parasites from contaminated food or water, bug bites, or sexual contact also ingestion of contaminated water can lead to Giardia infections. Normally, parasites enter the body through the skin or mouth.

Other risks that can lead people to acquire parasites are walking with lack of hygiene, inadequate disposal of feces and close contact with someone carrying specific parasites.


Antiparasitic drugs are the main source used in the treatment of parasitic infections. Hookworm infection has been controlled to entire populations by the administered treatments (Albendazole and mebendazole) which are costly and both children and adults are reinfected within a few months after deparasitation.

In cases of some parasitic diseases, there is no treatment and, in the case of serious symptoms, medication intended to kill the parasite is administered, whereas, in other cases, symptom relief options are used. Recent studies have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa.


Mycosis is a fungal infection which can be seen in animals and humans. Mycoses are common and can contribute to the development of fungal diseases in any variety of environmental and physiological conditions.

People with weakened immune systems are affected with HIV/AIDS undergoing steroid treatments and chemotherapy is at higher risk of fungal infections. Also, people with diabetes tend to develop fungal infections faster than normal human beings.Granulomatous-mycosis-fungoides-showing-erythematous-patches-and-plaques-Note-that

Preventive Measures:

Mycosis can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene, as well as keeping the skin clean and dry. It is important to maintain tidiness and washing after touching other people or animals. Sports clothing also be washed after every use as fungal infections are contagious.

Clinical Significance:

Cutaneous Mycoses are caused by a group of related fungi, the dermatophytes which are also called dermatophytoses. These Dermatophytoses are characterized by itching and scaling skin patches. Fungal diseases are usually identified according to affected tissue, but for a given disease, it can be caused by any one or several organisms. Some organisms can cause more than one disease depending on the site of infection or condition of the skin.


Depending on the Nature of infection, mycoses are treated by Antifungal drugs. Example of antifungals include: Fluconazole and amphotericin B which are used in the treatment of most severe fungal infections. Azoles like ketoconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine are drugs used to treat skin infections. Candida albicans is one of the Yeast infections which are caused in the vagina and can be treated with medicated suppositories such as tioconazole and pessaries whereas skin yeast infections are treated with medicated ointments.