Category Archives: Medical

Epilepsy research links mossy brain cells to memory loss and seizures

A minor group of cells in the brain can have a big consequence on seizures and memory in a mouse model of epilepsy. Concurring to a novel study in Discipline, deficiency of mossy cells may be a factor to raging seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and also memory problems often experienced by individuals with the disease.

The function of mossy cells in epilepsy has been wrangled about for decades. This study uncovers how significant these cells are in the disease, and the research indicates that avoiding loss of mossy cells or discovering methods to activate them may be potential therapeutic targets. Mossy cells, named for the dense moss-like protrusions that mask their surface, are situated in the hippocampus, a brain region that is known to play key roles in remembrance. Loss of mossy cells is linked with TLE, but it is unidentified what role that plays in the disease. By means of state-of-the-art tools, researchers were able to turn mossy cells on and off to trail their impacts in a mouse model of epilepsy.

EPI2019 (2)

The remarkable Research carried out by manipulating certain brain cells in the hippocampus of a mouse model. Utilizing 21st-century devices brings us closer than always to opening the puzzles after this devastating disorder.TLE, numerous seizures, acknowledged as focal seizures, start off in one part of the brain and are evident on electroencephalography (EEG) checks that show the brain’s electrical action. These seizures can consequence in symptoms such as jerking or a strange taste or smell, and many individuals with TLE might not be alert that these indications are for seizures. In some cases, focal seizures can extend all through the complete brain becoming generalized, ensuing in spontaneous muscle spasms, or shakings, that distress the limbs and other parts of the body as well as loss of consciousness.

When Researchers unit identified focal seizures on the mice’s EEG checks, they regulated mossy cells on or off to observe whether they had any consequence on the seizures. The researchers found that turning on the cells avoided the focal seizures from transitioning into raging ones. After the mossy cells were turned off, though, raging seizures were more likely to occur. Mossy cells had barely a negligible effect on the incidence of focal seizures. This was the initial time they e were capable to illustrate in particular that mossy cell action can dominate convulsive seizures. These mice were missing most of their mossy cells, yet we were able to see effects just by controlling the tiny number of existing cells.

Individuals with TLE often encounter temporary changes in thoughts and long-term issues with memory. Study on the role of mossy cells in two explicit types of memory: object recognition and spatial memory, which refers to recognizing where objects are situated and exploring in the vicinity of the surroundings. In these tests, the mice were put in a chamber among two duplicate items. The next day, one of the objects was supplanted with another one (to test for object recognition) or stirred to a different location (to test for spatial memory). The epileptic mice had difficulty with spatial memory assignments but their capability to recognize items was unchanged. In addition, turning off mossy cells in healthy mice too driven to issues with spatial memory in those creatures. These conclusions propose that a reduction in mossy cells can lead to convulsive seizures as well as memory shortfalls.

Further research is obligatory to advance comprehend the function of mossy cells in seizure development as well as their impacts at the beginning of the disease.

Maternal–Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

Maternal-fetal medicine is also called as Perinatology; it is one division of medicine that targeting on handling health care of the mother and fetus prior to, during pregnancy and after pregnancy. And Neonatology is a sub-branch of medicine of the new-born infants. Especially this branch consists of the medical care to newborns and ill newborns. It is completely hospital-based treatment. It is usually known as neonatal intensive care units.

Maternal-fetal and neonatal medicine specialists are physicians who subspecialize within the field of obstetrics, gynaecology and paediatrics. They act as both consultants during lower-risk pregnancy and as the primary obstetrician in especially high-risk pregnancies. After birth, they may interest to work closely with neonatologists or paediatricians.

pregnancy

The scope of practice:       

Maternal-fetal and neonatal medicine specialists attend to patients who fall within certain levels of maternal care. These levels correspond to health risks for the mother, new-baby or both, during pregnancy. They take care of pregnant women have chronic conditions (kidney or heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and thrombophilia), pregnant women who are all at risk for pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, preterm labor and twin or triplet pregnancies), and pregnant women with fetuses at risk. Fetuses may be at risk due to congenital abnormalities or chromosomal, infections, genetic diseases maternal disease and growth restriction.

Mothers with chronic conditions, such as blood pressure, drug use before or during pregnancy, or a diagnosed medical condition may require a consult with a maternal-fetal specialist. In addition, pregnant women who experience difficulty conceiving may be referred to a maternal-fetal specialist for assistance.

We cordially invite you to attend the International Conference on Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 2019. It is provides a great platform to explore concepts with topics that include Fetal and Maternal Physiology, Neonatology and Perinatology, Maternal-Fetal Imaging, Maternal & Child Care, Nursing & Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Midwifery & Nursing, Multiple Pregnancies, Neonatal Oncology, Fetal Neurology, Neonatal Cardiology & Pulmonology, Neonatal Endocrinology, Neonatal Gastroenterology, Surgery and Radiology, Pregnancy and Childbirth.

A novel diagnostic device with Simple test detects disease-carrying mosquitoes, presence of bio pesticide

A novel diagnostic device has been developed by researchers that can effortlessly, rapidly and cheaply distinguish whether a mosquito belongs to the species that carry dangerous diseases such as Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya or yellow fever. It can also reveal whether the bug has come into contact with a mosquito-control strategy acknowledged as Wolbachia. Several of these diseases are scattering in areas where they weren’t common earlier than. Having surveillance is significant in concurrence with any kind of outburst, and this way allows a quick est in the area.

Mosquito AbatementThe device uses a smartphone camera, a small 3D-printed box, and a basic chemical examination to demonstrate whether a dead mosquito belongs to the Aedes aegypti variety. Aedes aegypti carries Zika and other distressing viruses that torment an estimated 100 million inhabitants around the world each year. The species, in addition, is closely connected to the tripling of cases of mosquito-borne infections in the United States since 2004.The device created by scientists and students also detects the existence of a biopesticide called Wolbachia, a type of bacteria that keeps mosquitoes from dissemination of diseases. In countries around the world and in 20 U.S. states where the Aedes aegypti mosquito is established, scientists working in public health agencies have started to infect mosquitoes with Wolbachia by introducing the bacteria into a local mosquito population to help control the spread of viruses.Because mosquitoes show no outward signs of having the bacteria – and because existing diagnostic tests are hard to read, expensive and logistically cumbersome – the new tool represents a significant step forward for those hoping to monitor the effectiveness of Wolbachia.This test can happen without including a lot of staff and equipment to make sure Wolbachia is effectual and distribution as anticipated.simpletestde

Public health groups confine and kill mosquitoes regularly in conjunction with observing efforts, but existing technology requires a complex process to extricate nucleic acid from within mosquitoes, frequently after they have been deceased for days and have begun to perish, leading to the larger expense and the chance of more errors in lab tests than the new equipmentimages . The new diagnostic tool uses a smartphone’s camera and a basic test that can be done anyplace. It tests mosquitoes’ nucleic acid with no requiring a complicated procedure to eradicate it. Legitimately known as a loop-mediated isothermal amplification and oligonucleotide strand dislocation, or Lamp OSD, the probe conveys a simple yes-or-no readout on a cellphone, by accurateness of greater than 97 percent.

In addition to the tests to identify mosquito species and Wolbachia, the team also is exploring the use of the innovation to easily recognize whether caught mosquitoes are carrying Zika, dengue, and other pathogens.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes Complication

Cannabis, or marijuana, could be a drug derived from the cannabis plant that’s utilized for recreational utilize, therapeutic purposes and religious or spiritual rites. Cannabis plants deliver a one of a kind family of compounds called cannabinoids. From these, the main psychoactive (brain function-affecting) compound is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis contains high levels of THC, as well as other psychoactive chemicals, which deliver the ‘high’ users feel when breathing in or ingesting it. Two other compounds, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabidiol (CBD) have been appeared to have benefits for blood sugar control and digestion system in diabetes considers.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes Complication (2)

Individuals with Type 1 diabetes are generally advised to keep their hemoglobin levels below 6.5 percent, but the cannabis users have average readings of 8.4 percent. This was said to represent hazardously lifted blood sugar that can increment the hazard of heart assaults, strokes, kidney disappointment, visual deficiency, removals, and death.

Individuals with type 1 diabetes who utilize marijuana may double their hazard of creating a life-threatening complication. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the condition happens when there’s not sufficient insulin to break down sugar within the body, so the body burns fat for fuel instead. This triggers a build-up of chemicals known as ketones, which make blood more acidic and can lead to coma or death. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune malady that develops when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells within the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that channels the sugar from foods into the body’s cells to be utilized as fuel. Individuals with type 1 diabetes not make sufficient insulin on their own. They must take shots or utilize an insulin pump to deliver the insulin they need to their bodies.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes ComplicationHowever, getting the dosage right could be a difficult adjusting act. Too much insulin can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels that make individuals shaky, confused and irritable, and if not treated, can cause somebody to pass out and conceivably to die. But too small insulin can lead to high blood sugar levels. Over a long time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious complications related to diabetes, such as heart and kidney disease, vision problems and amputations. Too small insulin can moreover lead to DKA in as little as a few hours. Individuals with type 1 diabetes need to be locked in with their disease and manage insulin dosing always, even those on the pump with closed loop systems.

Seven common-sense building blocks for your child’s brain

 1aAll youngsters contrast in their natural vulnerability to life encounters in a ‘for better and for more terrible’ way. A few children are especially delicate to both exceptionally unpleasant and exceedingly sustaining situations. Like orchids, such youngsters sprout if affectionately developed, however shrink and wilt whenever ignored.

Conversely, versatile flexible kids who don’t get effortlessly focused resemble little dandelions, they’ll develop and flourish anyplace.

Studies are currently indicating ‘orchid’ and ‘dandelion’ qualities connected to specific compounds or mind concoction receptors, if and just whenever joined with early youth lethal pressure, can trigger conduct issues and state of mind issue further down the road.

The Dunedin examine has demonstrated that early beneficial encounters shape creating mind engineering and unequivocally influence whether kids grow up to be sound, profitable individuals from society. Poisonous pressure — characterized as pressure that is extraordinary or dependable or happens outside a domain of steady, connected parental figure connections — crashes sound mental health, with harming consequences for learning, conduct, and physical and psychological wellness over the life expectancy.

While composing The Women’s Brain Book I spent a lot of Chapter 2 investigating what can turn out badly amid youth – from the impacts of injury to family worry to learning negative sex generalizations. I stressed that if perusers had youthful youngsters they were presumably prepared to drop the book and keep running off to mass purchase cotton fleece and air pocket wrap.

Given what we think about typical and irregular mental health, what encounters do newborn children and kids (the dandelions and the orchids) need to flourish, not simply survive? What can grown-ups who bring up kids do to cultivate sound, upbeat brains?

Looked with swimming through many years of youth advancement writing, I rather grabbed the telephone and called my companion and partner Dr Kristy Goodwin. Goodwin is a kids’ learning and improvement specialist and she has condensed seven basic encounters or, as she calls them ‘fabricating squares’ for ideal mental health.

What do developing brains need to flourish?

  1. Attachments and relationships.

Warm, unsurprising and cherishing connections enable youngsters to feel secure, protected and unstressed.

  2.Language .

Newborn children and youthful kids require abundant chances to hear and utilize dialect: ‘serve-and-return’ collaborations are vital.

  1. Sleep

Rest is imperative for youngsters’ enthusiastic, physical and mental advancement.

  1. Play.

Through play, infants and youngsters create subjective abilities, innovativeness and passionate direction. They require adequate chances to try and investigate, incorporating time outside in nature. Dr Goodwin features the cutting edge need to neutralize ‘screen time’ with ‘green time’.

  1. Physical Movement.

Kids need to ace basic then complex engine aptitudes with the end goal to grow more advanced, higher-arrange thinking abilities later on.

  1. Nutrition.

Quality nourishment is crucial for ideal advancement. Kids’ weight control plans should be wealthy in sustenances that contain fundamental unsaturated fats ideal for mental health.

  1. Executive Function Skills.

Kids need to ace basic higher-arrange thinking aptitudes, for example, drive control and working memory.

“Given that we know encounter represents around 70% of a youngster’s advancement. It’s important that we give them the correct sorts of encounters.” Dr Kristy Goodwin.

Poulton, Goodwin and I concur that adolescence is a hallowed time. It’s a remarkable period in the life expectancy that should be cherished, supported and ensured.

Why single embryo transfer during IVF sometimes results in twins or triple

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It has been known for some time that it is way better to transfer a single embryo to a woman’s womb during Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) instead of a few embryos in order to dodge multiple pregnancies and the dangers related with it such as fetal passings, premature delivery, miscarriage, and low birthweight. However, indeed when Single Fetus Transfer (SET) is performed, some women still ended up being pregnant with twins or indeed triplets.

World’s driving reproductive medicine journals, analysts have explored one of the reasons as a result of a process called zygotic splitting. Zygotic splitting after SET highlights factors that may increment the chance. These incorporate utilizing frozen defrosted embryos for SET, developing the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the laboratory for five or six days before SET, and assisted hatching, in which a small hole is made within the layer of proteins encompassing the embryo (the zona pellucida) to assist the embryo hatch out and connect itself to the wall of the woman’s womb.

Zygotic splitting happens between days two and six when the zygote divides, ordinarily into two, and each zygote at that point goes on to develop into an embryo, leading to identical twins (or triplets in case it separates into three). These are known as “monozygotic” twins (or triplets). At present, the number of embryos that can be exchanged is no more than 2 for women beneath 40 (or for those getting donated eggs as givers are beneath 35) or for women over 40 no more than 3.

There are numerous dangers inherent to both the mother and the babies born in a multiple birth pregnancy:-

  • Pregnancy complications
  • Higher rates of miscarriage
  • Higher chance of intercession in conveyance
  • Premature birth

It is vital to point out that although the use of single embryo transfer has increased around the world, the predominance of zygotic splitting pregnancies has not. This may be because Art methods, and also the cultures in which blastocysts are matured in the lab, have improved in recent years, decreasing the stress on embryos and leading to a diminish in the risk of zygotic splitting.

New allergy vaccine for hay fever shows promising results

w1Allergy has turned into a typical ailment, and several millions around the globe experience the ill effects of hypersensitive rhinitis, or feed fever, with distresses like colds, weakness and red, bothersome eyes. The analysts have built up an immunization that keeps the advancement of hypersensitivity in mice. It depends on particular sugar atoms that may build the impact of medications and decrease treatment times. New allergy antibody for feed fever indicates promising outcomes.

The present type of immunization can be improved. At first, the objective was to make a fake creation of the proteins on which allergy antibodies are based and to upgrade the proteins making them more compelling and quick working by utilizing sugar atoms. The long haul objective is to diminish the treatment time significantly, while in the meantime bringing down the treatment dosage.w2

Today we have immunizations for a few types of hypersensitivity, including roughage fever. Treatment in Denmark typically takes three to five years and includes standard infusions. Tragically, the immunizations don’t take a shot at everybody. Some are restored, others get less manifestations, while some experience no impact by any means. Another treatment alternative against grass dust hypersensitivity, for instance, is an oral lyophilisate to be taken day by day for a long time.w3

Birch is the test allergen of the new vaccine, which was administered as injections, on mice and in so-called in vitro tests on human cells .Allergen is the substance that can cause allergy when a person comes into contact with or ingests it. Several of the allergens — causing for example hay fever — are so-called glycoproteins. The sugar molecules were attached to the allergen to try to improve the effect of vaccination.w4

In the study that sugar molecules can be used to ensure that an allergen reaches the right cells in the immune system and increases the intake of the vaccine, improving the effect hereof. At the same time, the sugar molecules increase the activity of a different group of cells in the immune system, T cells, which help perform the functional part of the process. The next step is to test more types of sugar molecules to increase our portfolio and hopefully identify more sugar structures which can be used to further develop the vaccine platform. The researchers are seeking to further develop the vaccine to make it effective enough to be used on human allergy patients. The method of optimising a vaccine using sugar molecules — can potentially also be used to optimise treatments for other diseases. Instead of coupling sugar molecules with allergens, the researchers may simply couple it with different proteins.

Researchers are uncovering which sugar molecules are useful in connection with vaccines — and not just vaccines for allergy, but vaccines in general. This theory is based on the role of sugar molecules in the immune system’s reactions to various diseases. This method can potentially also be used within fields such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Pediatric and fetal surgery- Let’s get to know more!!!

1.Pediatric surgery is one of the most important branches of surgery and require intense monitoring due to the complexity and the small size of the babies and the difficulties in explaining situations.

Facts about Babies and Surgery!!!

  • Most babies or infants needs surgery for the specific purposes.
  • Some problems must be surgically corrected such as gastroschisis which requires surgery in the first hour following birth and omphalocele which can be corrected in the next few days.
  • Premature babies are at the higher risk for needing surgery.
  • A pediatric trained surgeon has special expertise in the anatomy and physiology of babies.
  • Some conditions which requires surgery may be trained during prenatal testing itself.
  • Babies or infants need special needs special needs when it comes to the field of surgery because of their small size and uniqueness.2.

Some of the important fetal surgeries.

  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital High Airway Obstruction
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation
  • Fetal Surgery for Neck Masses
  • Fetal Surgery for Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
  • Fetal Surgery for Urinary Tract Obstruction
  • Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy

Advances and limitations of minimally invasive techniques in pediatric surgery

  • Application of minimally invasive surgery in adult is slowly developing rather than compared to adults in surgery.
  • The application of endoscopic pediatric surgery in the Head and Neck is still untouched possibly due to the unavailability of exact size of scopes and surgical equipment’s.
  • Laparoscopy and Thoracoscopy are the usual MIS procedures performed in various surgical disciplines

New Antibody Conjugates in Cancer Therapy

drug_conjugateTargeting of drugs, radiation and protein toxins to cancer selectively with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been considerable as a topic of interest and an area of continued development. Radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma using directly labeled MAbs is of current interest after approval of two radiolabeled anti-CD20 MAbs, as illustrated with the near 100% overall response rate obtained in a recent clinical trial using an investigational radiolabeled 90Y-epratuzumab ,anti-CD22 MAb. The advantage of pre targeted RAIT over directly labeled MAbs is continuing to be validated in preclinical models of solid tumors and lymphoma. Importantly, the advantages of combining RAIT with radiation sensitizers, with immunotherapy, or a drug conjugate targeting a different antigen are being studied clinically and pre clinically. The area of drug-conjugated antibodies is progressing with encouraging data for the trastuzumab-DM1 conjugate in a phase I clinical trial in HER2-positive breast cancer. The technology of Dock-and-Lock platform has contributed to the design and the evaluation of antibody-toxin conjugates and complex antibody-cytokine.

RADIOIMMUNOCONJUGATES

Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) involves in the application of radiolabeled MAbs for targeted radiotherapy (RT). Both directly radiolabeled MAbs and in vivo radiolabelings of tumor-targeted MAbs by complexation with radiolabeled haptens have been developed.

Radionuclides Used for RAIT

Tumoricidal effects produced by continuous low-dose irradiation from a tumor-targeted radiolabeled MAb. For therapy, α- and β-particle emitters are of practical relevance. There have been numerous investigations with a number of these radionuclides, but for use with whole antibodies, the most promising radionuclides are the β-emitters 131I, 90Y, and 177Lu. 90Y is a max-energy β-emitter (Emax: 2,280 keV; max range: 12 mm) with a 64-h half-life, while 131I has a higher half-life of 8.1 days with low-intermediate energy (610 keV, range: 2.0 mm). 131I is quickly removed from tumor cells after intracellular antibody catabolism so it is not suitable for use with internalizing MAbs. The forms of intracellularly trapped 131I have been designed by us and others for use with internalizing MAbs. A recent study of IMP-R4 template utilized for incorporating residualizing radioiodine for immuno-PET quantitation of de2-7 EGFR expression in glioma in a xenograft model using 124I-IMP-R4–labeled anti-EGFR antibody, ch806. Residualizing use of radioiodine method for clinical RAIT may be supplanted by the availability of the metallic radionuclide 177Lu, which has radiophysical properties similar to those of 131I and radiolabeling chemistry similar to that of 90Y.

Zoonotic diseases- Rabies alert….!!!

Rabies-Vaccination-for-Pets-Rabid-Animals-1024x715Rabies is a Zoonotic infection that can be transmitted between humans and animals which has become a major public health problem. Among various zoonotic diseases, rabies and glanders cause millions of deaths. Overall prevalence of rabies cases which were around 48% are caused by dogs. Fatal neurological infection is caused by rabies in humans and other mammals, transmitted through the saliva of rabid animals via a bite or scratches.

Rodents such as rats, squirrels, and rabbits almost carry rabies and different wild animals like bats, raccoons, coyotes, foxes, and skunks are more likely to carry the disease. More than 200 diseases transmitted from animals to humans are through animal bites, arthropod vectors especially ticks and mosquitoes, air contact and direct contact transmission with the infected animal.

Rabies is a preventable viral infection of warm-blooded creatures frequently transmitted through the bite of an infected organism. Animals that have furious rabies may be very agitated or extremely aggressive towards different creatures, protests or even their own appendages. These animals ordinarily dribble exorbitantly, which can exhibit frothing at the mouth affected with rabies.

To stop the transmission of rabies, vaccinations are the best way and vaccinate animals like cattle, dogs and cats are against to rabies virus, and it may reduce the spread of Rabies virus.