Category Archives: Medical

Is Using Baby Lotion on Newborns Safe?

3Once you welcome your new born baby  into the new world caring for the baby  becomes a first  priority  this is the question many first time mothers have is about skin care for new born baby  New-borns have very  delicate skin that is vulnerable to irritation and dryness Although new born baby skin does not require additional moisturisation very often  the skin does get dry after baths and may require a smaller amount of moisturiser to replenish the natural skin oils lost due to bathing or dry air this is safe to use lotion to protect your little one’s skin

When Can You Start Putting Lotion on a New-born Baby:

Neonates have a covering over their skin called as ‘vernix’ this is a waxy layer of protection that covered their body in the mother’s womb to protect their skin from the amniotic fluid. This layer starts peeling off in the first few weeks after birth, giving the appearance of dry  flaky skin the  skin below this layer is consist of moist which is  enough and does not need extra moisturisation.

However, you can use a moisturiser if the baby seems to have very dry skin, especially around the ankles, elbows and hands. It is safe to use petroleum jelly, olive oil or Vitamin A-D cream to help with the appearance of the skin when the vernix is peeling off. If you want to use store-bought moisturiser, it is best to use a mild, fragrance-free one or one that has been recommended by your new-born’s paediatrician.

Why Does a New-born Baby’s Skin Need Lotion:
A new born baby’s skin is actually consist of  moist under the outermost layer. However, it does need lotion or a moisturiser as it can become dry when exposed to dry air in the room and also, after a bath. It is best not to bathe your new born baby more than thrice a week, as this can strip the baby’s delicate skin of all the oils that keep the skin soft and supple. The baby’s skin is sensitive and prone to irritation and eczema. Hence, you may need to use lotion or moisturiser to soothe skin irritation and combat baby eczema.

How to Choose the Best Lotion for Your New-born:       

To find out the what is best lotion for newborn baby following these tips:Pick a mild and gentle lotion that is free of perfume and colours, parabens, phthalates, phenoxyethanol, preservatives, and organically extracted plant oils, always Choose a lotion that is doctor recommended rather than buying one at a store., If you wont  to buy lotion you can use olive oil, petroleum jelly or doctor-recommended vitamin A-D cream, Use a lotion that is hypoallergenic on your baby’s skin and to avoid any allergic reactions.

Do you think Immunity is Important for Decreasing spread of Diseases?

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Basically Disease spreading pathogens need needs susceptible people to spread from one person to another person, where as everybody in a community can’t be more immune to be prevented from the disease spreading pathogens so if a high enough proportion of individuals in a community are immune the majority immune people will protect the few susceptible people. In this way immunity can have an impact on spread of diseases to one and another in a community and having a chance of breaking the chain of spreading diseases.

What is the importance of immunity?

Immune System, The system that is created of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends individuals against germs and microorganisms on a daily basis. In most cases, the system will do a good job of keeping individuals healthy and preventing infections. The main purpose of immune system is to safeguard your body from viruses and microorganism, this typically works well however will cause issues if your systemcause issues if your system incorrectly classifies a number of your own cells and attacks them instead. There are types of immunity so called Adaptive immunity – in these two types of immunities take place they are: Passive immunity and Active Immunity whereas immunity occurred due to passage of antibodies from one person to another is called passive immunity For an example through transfusion and Active immunity involves two types of white blood cells – T Cells & B

Hypothyroid children can perform like a normal child?

1Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is underactive and produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder affecting children. However, children with the disorder display different symptoms from adults. Hypothyroidism in the new born, when left untreated, can lead to intellectual disability and profound developmental delays.

What causes hypothyroidism:

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune reaction in which the body’s immune system slowly destroys the thyroid gland. This is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis. Maternal antibodies produced against a woman’s thyroid, or treatment of a mother’s thyroid disorder such as iodine, can affect her unborn child’s thyroid function.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism:

The symptoms of hypothyroidism in children are different than in adults. The following are the late symptoms of the disorder. However, each child may experience symptoms differently, and often the symptoms are not seen at all.Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for congenital abnormalities of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, and skeletal systems. Jaundice yellowing of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, Poor appetite, Slow bone growth, Slow growth, Delayed tooth development, Tiredness, Feeling cold, Constipation, Slow growth, Delayed puberty, Hair loss, Dry skin, Weight gain The symptoms of hypothyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child’s doctor for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis: Congenital present at birth hypothyroidism is usually detected during the routine new born screening. In older children, blood samples taken may reveal abnormally low levels of T4 the main hormone released from the thyroid or abnormally high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), suggesting thyroid problems. Released from the brain, TSH is the hormone that increases the size, number, and activity of the thyroid cells. TSH also stimulates the release of hormones that affect a person’s metabolism and that are essential for normal growth and development. Evaluation may include a scan of the thyroid gland to check for abnormalities.

What is congenital hypothyroidism:

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) means the disorder is present at birth. CH is one of the most common and preventable causes of intellectual disability.

Treatment: Specific treatment for hypothyroidism will be determined by your child’s doctor in consultation with you. Considerations include your child’s current and past health status, age, medication tolerance, projected disease progression, and your beliefs and attitudes about the treatment alternatives. Left untreated in new born, hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability. Untreated hypothyroidism may also lead to anaemia, low body temperature, and heart failure. The goal of treatment is to restore the thyroid gland to normal function, producing normal levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment may include prescription of thyroid hormones to replace the deficient hormones. Some children will require hormone replacement therapy for the rest of their lives, while others appear to outgrow the disorder, often by the age of three. Regular monitoring of the child’s thyroid hormone levels during the course of treatment, including a one month discontinuation of treatment after age three years to see how the thyroid responds, can help your child’s doctor diagnose your child’s condition more accurately.

Is Novel Drug Delivery System responsible for the Enhanced Drug Delivery?

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Novel Drug Delivery System comprising the methods namely

  • Transdermal Drug Delivery system
  • Carrier Based Drug delivery system

Both the methods have been a revolution in the field of drug delivery and distribution. The aspects like bio availability of the drug to the body and specificity of the target in body has been optimized by the improvements and discoveries made in the field of novel drug delivery system.

Targeted drug delivery system has been the major motto of the NDDS from the very start of the subject inclusion as an result many wonders are been discovered year by year which are leading to the optimized and enhanced mechanism of drug distribution and delivery with specificity in the target

Transdermal Drug Delivery System

|| Sonophoresies

  • Mucoadhesive Delivery System
  • Supramolecular Delivery System
  • Variable Release Delivery System

|| Osmatic Pump

|| Microencapsulation

Transdermal Drug delivery system has been the major aspect to be discussed that had given the release from administration of pain killers which is leading to drug abuse. The transdermal drug delivery patches has been the major development which later have been used not only as pain killers or analgesics but also many other targeted drug administrations.

Pros: No dose dumping, No internal administration, no drug drug interactions

Cons: Dermal infections.

Carrier Based Drug Delivery System

|| Liposomes

|| Nanoparticles

|| Microspheres

|| Resealed Erythrocytes

|| Monoclonal Antibodies

Can the brain scans diagnose neurological and psychiatric disorders?

fnMRI ScansThere are no scientific tests to diagnose migraines, depression, bipolar disorder and many other ailments of the brain. Doctors generally determine such disorders based on self-reported symptoms and behavior.

Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI):

A new theory shows that a type of brain scan called functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) — which shows how brain regions interact can accurately detect fundamental differences in how brains are wired. This technique potentially could be used to distinguish healthy people from people with brain diseases, and give insight into variations in cognitive ability and individuality traits.

This is a step toward realizing the clinical promise of functional connectivity MRI. Before we can improve diagnostic tests based on fcMRI, we have to know what it is literally measuring our organised brain. This leads to an entire new field of clinical testing.

Procedure for fcMRI scans:

Analysis of a set of data collected from undergoing myriad scans in an MRI machine. The researchers analyzed data from more than 10 hours of fcMRI scans on every 9 people, collected in 10 distinct one-hour sessions for every person. In the time of scans, every person performed tasks related to vision, memory, reading or motor skills, or simply rested.

Functional MRI scans produce a dynamic map of the outer surface of the brain, showing change in hot spots of activity over different durations. To form a functional connectivity map, the surface of the brain is divided into 333 different regions and identified areas that became active and inactive in simultaneously. Brain network maps are then constructed for every person, showing patterns of connection between parts of the brain.

The abundant of data available on every person allows easy analysis of how much an individual’s brain networks changes from day to day and with various mental tasks. Brain networks caught by fcMRI are really about the individual i.e., whether someone’s watching a movie or thinking about their breakfast or moving their hands makes only a small difference. We can still identify that individual by their brain networks with a glance.

Disadvantages:

The stability of the fcMRI scans makes them a good diagnostic tool. Even though the technique’s potential to identify brain disorders and diseases was identified years ago fcMRI-based diagnostic trials are yet to make their way into doctors’ offices. Progress has been inhibited by confusion over whether the scans reflect fundamental, stable features of the brain, or if they change with all passing thoughts.

Moreover, the researchers found that this technique was powerful enough to distinguish people who were extraordinarily same. All of the scanned brains belonged to young, healthy scientists and doctors. More data is needed before we can know what normal variation in the population at large is. But the individual differences are simple to pick up, even in a population that is really very similar. It’s provoking to think that these individual differences could be related to personality, cognitive ability, or psychiatric or neurological disorder.

How is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is caused by Neural Dysfunction in children?

EBvnGo9UEAAEkqrMany parents have observed inadequate sleep in children is associated with daytime behavioral problems and poor academic functioning. A fact less well-recognized by clinicians and the general public is that sleep-related breathing disorders, which occur in two to 10% of children depending on how they are defined, can have a significant impact even among children who have normal sleeping hours.

One of the most severe nocturnal breathing diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), includes partial or complete breathing blockage recurrently during sleep, resulting in intermittent low level of oxygen in blood and probable sleep disruption. The frontal and hippocampal regions of the brain, which are implicated in the regulation of behavior and memory, respectively, appear to be most vulnerable to OSA, but the evidence is indirect.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive neuroimaging technique are used to detect chemical metabolites linked to neural dysfunction, to shed more direct light on the neural functioning of children with OSA.

The Study Findings

In comparison, children with OSA have significantly lower on tests of overall intelligence and some aspects of higher-level thinking called “executive functions,” but the groups did not vary on tests of sustained attention, or motor skills. Tests of memory did not give significant differences between the groups, but the effect sizes were large enough to suggest that significant effects might have been found in a larger sample. MRS specified that those with OSA had abnormal metabolites in the left hippocampus and right frontal cortex.

Implications for Brain Development and Clinical Practice

These parallel findings of shortage on measures of behavioral and brain functioning in children with OSA are sobering, and gives support to concerns that OSA, if it is not treated, it may cause substantial long-term adverse effects. The developing brain does not just unfold in a predestined genetic process. But, it builds upon itself at every level, with development by the interaction of genes with the immediate cellular surroundings. That surrounding is estimated by the child’s life experiences (e.g., reactions to OSA-related behavioral disturbances) and physiological functioning (e.g., OSA-related oxygen deprivation or sleep disruption). Due to this, untreated childhood OSA may have a specifically marked long-term impact.

Pediatricians and other health-care professionals must increase their consistency in screening for symptoms of OSA. Sleep is seldom addressed in most pediatric clinics, even though clinical screening tools are easy to use for testing. This lack of clinical attention runs difficult to current evidence from sleep medicine and developmental neuroscience, which suggests that early disorder diagnosis and treatment should be a high priority.

Limitations of the Study

The studies in current research withstand replication, because they are consistent with adult studies that have shown similar abnormalities using MRS, and with current theories of the mechanisms behind the daytime deficits observed in individuals with OSA. Yet, more research is needed to verify and build on these theories. MRS gives indirect indices of neural dysfunction (not necessarily neuron death), and it is not clear whether those indices will become normal with effective OSA treatment or what long-term effects might continue. Similarly, although the current theories gave tantalizing suggestions of developmental effects, few children below the age 10 were able to tolerate the sedative-free MRS procedure, as they should be lying still during the scan. As a result, the high-risk period for OSA in preschool and early grade school remains are still not mainly considered by this study. By targeting on relatively severe cases, the study also is not considered for milder forms of sleep-disordered breathing, which are more prevalent than severe forms and which have been found to rise in the risk for behavioral problems. At last, these theories will need to be replicated in completely community-based samples. Children who are referred for clinical estimation in a sleep clinic are likely to have other problems that brought them to their concern of referring professionals in the first place

Alzheimer Disease – Different Drug discoveries

Stroke Meet 2019 (2)Alzheimer Disease:

Alzheimer illness (AD) is among the most widely recognized reasons for dementia around the world. Affirmed drugs for the manifestations of AD dementia have the peripheral advantage, and no new treatments have been endorsed in recent years. There are no endorsed medications for the anticipation of AD dementia. The absence of strong therapeutics comes notwithstanding serious endeavors by people in general and private research network to find them. There have been around 450 disapproved clinical drug discoveries since the last endorsement by the Food and Drug Administration. There is an increase in people who are affected by AD and different dementias around the world, and nations around the world are contributing generous funding to invigorate essential and translational research with expectations of growing new therapeutics for the treatment and aversion of AD and other dementia.

Complexity for drug design:

Clinical-pathologic discoveries, numerous from network-based that incorporate brain autopsy, are revealing insight into the complex nature of the AD dementia phenotype. This complexed nature, to a great extent the consequence of blended dementia and neural save, has significant implications for clinical drug design and its discovery.

The data paint a picture of cognitive decline, MCI, and AD dementia resulting from a complex interaction between the accumulations of one or more brain pathologies in the context of a brain that is more or less resilient to these pathologies. This complexity has major implications for both clinical drug design and its discovery.

Implications of complexity for drug discovery:

Imagine a drug that targets the amyloid-β. Theories suggest that AD pathology is responsible for about a third of the variance of cognitive decline if one includes the effects of both amyloid-β and NFT [7]. One can enhances a study for amyloid-β with PET scans or CSF amyloid-β, but the theory still needs to be powered to affect only that portion of the cognitive trajectory associated along with this pathology. It is not clear that most theories have explicitly powered their trials by this way.

Currently, trials targeting a single molecular marker (i.e., amyloid-β) are costly, also requiring many other expensive PET scans. By difference, imagine neural reserve as a therapeutic endpoint. There is no developmental pressure to form systems that protect the brain from other brain pathology of old age, let alone different systems that give protection from different pathologies. Hence, finding that myriad factors alter the trajectory of cognitive decline agnostic to fundamental brain pathologies is expected. A hypothetical therapeutic endpoint that targets neural reserve could be used to counterbalance any and likely all common brain pathologies that alter cognition. The basic approach to design a clinical trial, assuming a relatively safe agent, would be a large research of cognitive decline among people at slightly increased risk of cognitive decline. Depending on the expected effect size, such a theory would likely want a minimum of less than thousand subjects followed for maximum four years. Although several issues are to be addressed, neural reserve gives a new pattern for approaching the treatment and prevention of AD and indeed all dementia syndromes.

How psychosomatic stress has an impact to our teeth and even to our whole periodontal system

3Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth and includes gingivitis and periodontitis. On the other hand, diabetes is a metabolic syndrome whose commonness is growing rapidly. It is known to be accompanied by serious complications such as blindness, gangrene, nephropathy, healing disorders, cardiovascular disease, and even death.  Periodontal disease is the sixth most prevalent complication of diabetes, as the risk of periodontitis increases about three times in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics.

Psychosomatic stress:

There are two concepts/hypothesis to explain the relationship between “Psyche” and “Soma”

Chronic diseases are the feedback of long-term interactions between a host and its environment and are multifactorial in nature. A number of mechanisms have been suggested, which could mediate the putative relationship between psychosocial conditions and inflammatory periodontal diseases.

Although interactions between stress-endocrine-periodontal are not yet well- understood, some hypotheses have been proposed. It has been doubted that periodontal status is connected to alterations in the concentration of adrenal corticoids and by altering the response of oral tissues to bacterial toxins and other hormones involved in the general adaptation syndrome

It is clear that good oral hygiene is partially dependent on the mental health status of the patient. It has been reported that psychological disturbances can cause patients to neglect oral hygiene and that the resultant accumulation of plaque is detrimental to the periodontal tissue. Academic stress was described as risk factors for gingival inflammation with enlarge crevicular interleukin-b levels and a diminution of quality of oral hygiene.

Role of stress in periodontal disease:

Stress influences the immune system and along with changes the behaviour, so it is very important to analyse if its influence is the same on the different forms of the periodontal disease. Stress decreases the saliva flow and increases the plaque formation. Studies have proven that the psychosocial factors are predisposing factors for the development of necrotic periodontitis.

 “How psychosomatic stress has an impact to our teeth and even to our whole periodontal system” is the workshop to be conducted by Dr. Dirk Schreckenbach of University of Saarland, Germany under the session ‘Diabetes and periodontal disease’ at the meeting 34th International Conference on Dental & Oral Health which is going to be held in Helsinki, Finland during October 21-22, 2019.

Is stress making you infertile?

2Stress causes barrenness, however is one reason for weight gain as well. Ordinarily stress may wreckage up our cerebrum’s reward System and may make us need progressively fat and sugar. Stress is certainly not a valid justification to get oneself a burger or chocolate or truckloads of frozen yogurt.

Too much stress may cause infertility among women. Women with high levels of stress were 29 per cent less likely to get pregnant. Meanwhile, men who work in night shifts are affected more as compared to others, as their biological clock gets disturbed. They sleep during the day and to keep themselves awake, they often smoke, which damages the system further. The stress at the workplace and sitting for long hours at work stations is also found to reduce the sperm count.

Factors contributing to stress, which causes infertility are: Unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, alcohol, drugs, marital disturbance, job or business stress, personal injury or illness, death of close family member, late marriages. Women with hectic jobs are most at risk and often in denial about the stress in their lives.

In fact, consuming high-fat foods is more likely to lead to weight gain. Also, when we are stressed, we also may be more likely to drive into a fast-food place, rather than taking the time and mental energy to plan and cook a meal.

How to deal with stress

Women are often found more stressed than men. Trying to get pregnant adds more pressure on already stressed out women. But thanks to technology, we have found treatment for infertility through IVF or IUI. On the other hand, women as well as men are also trying stress management techniques to overcome this problem.

There are numerous methods for decreasing stress available today, including learning relaxation techniques such as yoga or meditation and stress management strategies, going for a vacation, deep breathing exercises, etc. Counselling sessions for couples where they can freely speak their mind also helps in overcoming the problem.

Natural Remedies for PCOS

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical issue that influences 1 out of 10 ladies of childbearing age. Ladies with PCOS have a hormonal imbalance and metabolic problems that may influence their general health and appearance. PCOS is additionally a typical and treatable reason for infertility. PCOS is a condition which disrupts women endocrine system and increases androgen levels in her body (which is a male hormone). It was found that insulin resistance plays a part in causing PCOS. The high levels of insulin being produced by the pancreas is due to Insulin resistance by the receptors for insulin. Other factors for causing PCOS are low grade inflammation and hereditary factors. Women who are influenced by PCOS may encounter the impacts all through their lifetime. There might be an expanded danger of unsuccessful labour, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and preterm births. After conveyance, there is an expanded danger of the infant being set in the neonatal emergency unit demise previously, amid, or not long after birth. These intricacies are increasingly regular in various births, for instance, twins or triplets. Manifestations, for example, intemperate hair development and male pattern Baldness can last beyond menopause and may become worse. With maturing additionally comes the danger of the optional health Complications identified with PCOS, including coronary illness. The reasons for PCOS are unclear, however early diagnosis can help to reduce side effects and lessen the danger of complications.

Some of the signs and symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Excess body hair
  • Acne
  • Infertility
  • Heavy periods
  • Pelvic pain

They also are more likely to suffer from obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, endometrial cancer, mood disorders, and type 2 diabetes.

 Natural Remedies for PCOS

  • Apple Cider Vinegar
  • Fish Oil
  • Cinnamon
  • Saw Palmetto
  • Fenugreek
  • Chromium
  • Holy Basil
  • Green Tea
  • Chasteberry
  • Green Tea
  • Flaxseed
  • Licorice Root
  • Bitter gourd
  • Ivy gourd
  • Spearmint Tea
  • Healthy Diet and Exercise

Naturally Healthy

These natural remedies along with a clean, healthy diet and regular exercise – can go a long way to helping ease PCOS symptoms. It’s a good option to check with your regular healthcare provider to make sure you’re following the path that works best for you and your body.