Epigenetics might mean “above the genes,” however plenty of the main focus in the field is on DNA methylation, a chemical modification of DNA itself. Methylation doesn’t alter the particular DNA letters (A, C, G and T), however it will alter how DNA is handled by the cell. Generally, it shuts genes off and is important for cell differentiation. The most ordinarily studied form of DNA methylation seems on the DNA letter C (cytosine). Drosophila, despite being a helpful genetic model of development, has little of this form of DNA methylation. An enzyme that removes methylation from A is vital for neuronal development in drosophila (shown by Emory geneticists Bing Yao, PhD, Peng Jin, PhD and colleagues).
Removal of DNA methylation from C in mammals is trigger by the enzyme which is in the same family (TET ten-eleven translocations) of demethylases. Cells actively removed DNA methylation instead of simply letting it slough off which is revealed by the TET enzyme function, and it was discovered only in 2009. From the point of view of the proteins that require acknowledging it, methylation is basically just a bump on an extended DNA molecule, which bump seems in a totally different context on adenine versus cytosine. Thus, the result shows that the enzymes that remove methylation are related in both fruit fly and mammals.
In fly DNA, N6-methyladenine is rare — twenty five components per million — however confined to certain components of the genome. N6-methyladenine abundance shoots up by the elimination of DMAD in flies, and the pure DMAD protein will remove N6-methyladenine from DNA in a test tube. Polycomb proteins that stop gene transcription in both flies and humans are one of the important findings. Polycomb might be a potential “readers” for N6-methyladenine.