Category Archives: Epidemiology

Is Allergies due to salt possible?


Over the past 50 years of existence, the rate of recurrence of hypersensitivities and autoimmune diseases has risen rapidly, but it’s not clear as to why? and what is the reason?  In a study conducted in the field of Science Translational Medicine, analysts indicate a possible cause: salt. The researcher found that lab tests that high concentrations of sodium chloride can control the differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, the immune cells responsible for allergies, and that high levels of salt are existing in the affected skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis, an sensitive skin condition.

One of the immunologists explains how this topic is completely different and how such studies are needed to be explored more about as there  hasn’t been much progress in understanding this epidemic of allergic disease

Hay fever along with atopic dermatitis both amplified more than two-fold since the 1970s, an increase that analysts do not ascribe to larger responsiveness or analysis. This recent rise in the incidence of allergic infections is to be explained by heritable changes, so it’s possible to be due to an ecological or behavioral cause. “One thing that also changed within the last five to six decades is our diet. We are consuming fast food more often, and this also includes much-added salt, so that’s how this study bought in the attention towards the  uncertainty of whether salt can alter the immune system


This study started by upping the levels of sodium chloride in the tissue culture medium used to grow either human CD4-positive memory T cells, which give off a complex set of chemical signals based on previous exposure to antigens, or naïve T cells, which have not been exposed to antigens before. The salt boosted the production of cytokines and transcription factors specific to Th2 cells, in both cell types, signifying that high salt concentration promotes Th2 cell differentiation.  Also, it was found that the effects of the salt seemed to increase Th2-related programs via two salt-sensitive transcription factors.

Comparison between salt levels in the skin of adults with atopic dermatitis, an allergic condition which causes red, itchy patches of skin. Lesioned skin had sodium concentrations 30-fold elevated level than the patients’ unlesioned skin and skin from controls that were healthy. The team also examined sodium levels in pretentious and unaffected skin of people with psoriasis, an immune system disorder characterized by red color inflamed patches on the skin. Although both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are both chronic inflammatory skin conditions, psoriasis is interceded by a discrete type of T helper cells. They found no change in salt concentration in psoriatic lesions and healthy skin, which led them to rule out a role for inflammation in the differences in sodium that they noticed in individuals with atopic dermatitis.

Epilepsy research links mossy brain cells to memory loss and seizures

A minor group of cells in the brain can have a big consequence on seizures and memory in a mouse model of epilepsy. Concurring to a novel study in Discipline, deficiency of mossy cells may be a factor to raging seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and also memory problems often experienced by individuals with the disease.

The function of mossy cells in epilepsy has been wrangled about for decades. This study uncovers how significant these cells are in the disease, and the research indicates that avoiding loss of mossy cells or discovering methods to activate them may be potential therapeutic targets. Mossy cells, named for the dense moss-like protrusions that mask their surface, are situated in the hippocampus, a brain region that is known to play key roles in remembrance. Loss of mossy cells is linked with TLE, but it is unidentified what role that plays in the disease. By means of state-of-the-art tools, researchers were able to turn mossy cells on and off to trail their impacts in a mouse model of epilepsy.

EPI2019 (2)

The remarkable Research carried out by manipulating certain brain cells in the hippocampus of a mouse model. Utilizing 21st-century devices brings us closer than always to opening the puzzles after this devastating disorder.TLE, numerous seizures, acknowledged as focal seizures, start off in one part of the brain and are evident on electroencephalography (EEG) checks that show the brain’s electrical action. These seizures can consequence in symptoms such as jerking or a strange taste or smell, and many individuals with TLE might not be alert that these indications are for seizures. In some cases, focal seizures can extend all through the complete brain becoming generalized, ensuing in spontaneous muscle spasms, or shakings, that distress the limbs and other parts of the body as well as loss of consciousness.

When Researchers unit identified focal seizures on the mice’s EEG checks, they regulated mossy cells on or off to observe whether they had any consequence on the seizures. The researchers found that turning on the cells avoided the focal seizures from transitioning into raging ones. After the mossy cells were turned off, though, raging seizures were more likely to occur. Mossy cells had barely a negligible effect on the incidence of focal seizures. This was the initial time they e were capable to illustrate in particular that mossy cell action can dominate convulsive seizures. These mice were missing most of their mossy cells, yet we were able to see effects just by controlling the tiny number of existing cells.

Individuals with TLE often encounter temporary changes in thoughts and long-term issues with memory. Study on the role of mossy cells in two explicit types of memory: object recognition and spatial memory, which refers to recognizing where objects are situated and exploring in the vicinity of the surroundings. In these tests, the mice were put in a chamber among two duplicate items. The next day, one of the objects was supplanted with another one (to test for object recognition) or stirred to a different location (to test for spatial memory). The epileptic mice had difficulty with spatial memory assignments but their capability to recognize items was unchanged. In addition, turning off mossy cells in healthy mice too driven to issues with spatial memory in those creatures. These conclusions propose that a reduction in mossy cells can lead to convulsive seizures as well as memory shortfalls.

Further research is obligatory to advance comprehend the function of mossy cells in seizure development as well as their impacts at the beginning of the disease.

A novel diagnostic device with Simple test detects disease-carrying mosquitoes, presence of bio pesticide

A novel diagnostic device has been developed by researchers that can effortlessly, rapidly and cheaply distinguish whether a mosquito belongs to the species that carry dangerous diseases such as Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya or yellow fever. It can also reveal whether the bug has come into contact with a mosquito-control strategy acknowledged as Wolbachia. Several of these diseases are scattering in areas where they weren’t common earlier than. Having surveillance is significant in concurrence with any kind of outburst, and this way allows a quick est in the area.

Mosquito AbatementThe device uses a smartphone camera, a small 3D-printed box, and a basic chemical examination to demonstrate whether a dead mosquito belongs to the Aedes aegypti variety. Aedes aegypti carries Zika and other distressing viruses that torment an estimated 100 million inhabitants around the world each year. The species, in addition, is closely connected to the tripling of cases of mosquito-borne infections in the United States since 2004.The device created by scientists and students also detects the existence of a biopesticide called Wolbachia, a type of bacteria that keeps mosquitoes from dissemination of diseases. In countries around the world and in 20 U.S. states where the Aedes aegypti mosquito is established, scientists working in public health agencies have started to infect mosquitoes with Wolbachia by introducing the bacteria into a local mosquito population to help control the spread of viruses.Because mosquitoes show no outward signs of having the bacteria – and because existing diagnostic tests are hard to read, expensive and logistically cumbersome – the new tool represents a significant step forward for those hoping to monitor the effectiveness of Wolbachia.This test can happen without including a lot of staff and equipment to make sure Wolbachia is effectual and distribution as anticipated.simpletestde

Public health groups confine and kill mosquitoes regularly in conjunction with observing efforts, but existing technology requires a complex process to extricate nucleic acid from within mosquitoes, frequently after they have been deceased for days and have begun to perish, leading to the larger expense and the chance of more errors in lab tests than the new equipmentimages . The new diagnostic tool uses a smartphone’s camera and a basic test that can be done anyplace. It tests mosquitoes’ nucleic acid with no requiring a complicated procedure to eradicate it. Legitimately known as a loop-mediated isothermal amplification and oligonucleotide strand dislocation, or Lamp OSD, the probe conveys a simple yes-or-no readout on a cellphone, by accurateness of greater than 97 percent.

In addition to the tests to identify mosquito species and Wolbachia, the team also is exploring the use of the innovation to easily recognize whether caught mosquitoes are carrying Zika, dengue, and other pathogens.

Probiotics are Effective in the Battle against Infectious Disease Prevention and Control

Probiotics may possibly a comparatively safe, simple, and low-cost solution for avoiding Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healing center settings, concurring to two studies, today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Both studies illustrate that treating patients who got antibiotics with multi-strain probiotics, showed lessen CDI occurrence rates over the period.

Although it’s not an ideal way out for a bacterium that has proven very challenging to prevent and treat, probiotics might offer patients another thread of defense. Researchers worked through clinical trialists commencing 12 countries that readily shared their statistical data to conduct an individual patient data meta-analysis and they illustrated that everyone should be considering probiotics as a possible approach for preventing CDI in patients.

Taking Probiotics is a habit that can really benefit the digestive system , which intricately connected to our overall health

The investigation on the synthesis of randomized controlled trials to establish whether probiotics reduced the probability of CDI in adults and children. It showed that probiotics abridged the chances of CDI by about two-thirds in both their non-adjusted and adjusted models (sex, use of multiple antibiotics, hospitalization status, adjusting for age, and exposure to high-risk antibiotics). In addition, they establish that, compared to no probiotics, multi-species probiotics were additionally beneficial than single-species probiotics.

This investigation analysed 18 suitable randomized controlled trials that incorporated patient data for 6,851 members comparing probiotics to fake treatment or no treatment and that detailed CDI as an outcome. Probiotics were exceptionally successful among participants taking two or more antibiotics and in settings where the risk of CDI was larger than five percent.

videoblocks-probiotics-fruit-stop-motion_snltx6crg_thumbnail-full14Another related study conducted, in which a single-center before-after quality development intercession was assessed, found that probiotics provided a deferred benefit in lessening CDI. All through the intercession period, there was a trend toward a minor incidence in CDI in the next six months, compared to the initial six months. The investigators speculate that the deferred benefit might be attributed to the moment necessary for environmental defilement with spores of C. difficile to be brought in the monitor.

There are increasing number of alternatives to stop or treat the often significant and damaging contaminations caused by C. difficile. Probiotics are a solitary option that is a low expense, comparatively safe, and possibly beneficial in the long-run.”

Group of researchers compared 12-month standard and intercession periods. Patients in the investigate received capsules containing a three-strain probiotic combination, which has to be taken within 12 hours of their antibiotics. The main conclusion of the investigation was the frequency of hospital-onset CDI amongst members.

Though this investigation showed the benefits of executing probiotics as a methodology alongside CDI, it also highlighted the impediments in this methodology. For example, during a real-world quality enhancement intervention, attainment of the probiotic agent to the right patients at the appropriate time was challenging and led to the incomplete utilize of the intervention. In addition, the beneficial results are not likely to equal those reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is important that intercessions are tested in standard practice settings to discover implementation challenges and to assess the replicability of results from RCTs in diverse settings.