Category Archives: Environmental Sciences

Overview of Data Mining Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration:

Oil and gas supply chain consists of four main phases: 1) Extraction and Exploration, 2) Refining, 3) Transportation, and 4) Distribution and Marketing. In the context of cost reduction, exploration is the act of minimizing the expenses associated with finding commercial oil and gas deposits. These expenses increases from the mentioned main elementary activities satellite Infrared /Radar/Microwave Surveying, Aerial Imaging, Geo Botany prospecting and Geochemical Exploration; Aerial magnetic, Electromagnetic & Gravity Surveying, Seismic Surveying and Exploratory wells.

The technology applied in oil and gas exploration is Data Mining that can create cost reductions and bring about considerable financial benefits. By applying the advanced techniques, such as pattern recognition, and particular identification to a more comprehensive set of data collected during seismic acquisition, Geologists may be able to identify potentially productive seismic trace signatures that have been overlooked in newly acquired or archived data. Application of data mining in oil and gas exploration is in the experimental stage with much of the efforts focused on data-intensive computing. Oil and Gas Companies, Business Analytics service providers and Academic institutions are working on various applications. The categories are: structural geology and reservoir property-issues.

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In oil and gas exploration process, Structural Geology is accurately surveying the top, bottom and lateral extent of geological structures is important as these structures might produce hydrocarbons. This locating, in presence of oil and gas, assists in determining the thickness of the hydrocarbon bearing (rock) layers and consequentially in deciding the economic viability of the reserve. Furthermore, using accurate mapping, by the optimal placement of the wells, production in multi-layered reservoirs, where shale and sand layers are laminated, can be carried out from and combined into a single well, and, therefore, result in cost savings.

Reservoir Property-Issues The earliest discoveries of oil and gas deposits were based on determining the structural traps. But now a different type of trap became important, that is stratigraphic traps. Stratigraphic traps are one must go beyond the structure and deduce possible lithology (identifying rock layers in the subsurface) and probable presence of oil and gas. Horizontal lithological analysis is known as lithofacies analysis.

Inherited Epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression

Epigenetics congress 2018

Epigenetics mechanisms modulated by the manner of environmental cues in conjunction with a food plan, disorder or our life-style take a primary function in control the desoxyribonucleic acid through switching genes on and off. Currently, researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg show strong proof that not solely the inherited deoxyribonucleic acid itself, however, in addition, the inherited epigenetic commands contribute in control gene expression within the offspring. Moreover, the brand new insights through the science laboratory of Nicola Iovino describe for the primary time biological effects of this inherited data. The study proves that a mom’s epigenetic memory is vital for the development and survival of the new generation.

In our body, we discover over 250 completely different cell varieties. All of them contain the precise same desoxyribonucleic acid bases in just a similar order; but, liver or nerve cells look terribly totally different and have different skills. What makes the distinction may be a method referred to as epigenetics. Epigenetic modifications label specific regions of the desoxyribonucleic acid to draw in or keep proteins that activate genes. Thus, these modifications produce, step by step, the standard patterns of active and inactive desoxyribonucleic acid sequences for every cell variety. Moreover, contrary to the mounted sequence of ‘letters’ in our desoxyribonucleic acid, epigenetic marks may also amendment throughout our life and in response to our surroundings or modus vivendi. As an instance, smoking changes the epigenetic makeup of respiratory organ cells, eventually resulting in cancer. Alternative influences of external stimuli like stress, illness or diet also are imagined to be keeping within the epigenetic memory of cells.

Innovation in Photovoltaic cell is increasing the efficiency in Solar energy production

Innovation in photovoltaic cell is increasing the efficiency in solar energy production

A thin film Photovoltaic cell or PV cell is a device that converts light into energy or electric energy by using a semiconductor. Since it is utilized to convert solar energy into electricity it is also generally referred as solar cell employed in solar panel. Semiconductor materials are the building block of PV cell which have the property of metalloids. When light falls on Semiconductor they get energized by the photons and electrons present in it flows out of it to the conductor (metal) connected with it.

There are many different kinds of Semiconductor materials used for the manufacturing of solar cells such as silicon which is one of the most common semiconducting materials used in solar cells almost 90% of the solar cell sold today. Others PV cells are like Organic Photovoltaic where the cells are made of carbon polymers which are made the function for specific type light but they are very less efficient than others silicon and Thin-film Photovoltaic and also have shorter lifetimes.

The thin film photovoltaic cell is made of one or more thin layers of semiconducting materials on supporting materials such as metals glass, plastics, and others. There are many different types of thin film PV semiconductors used today such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS), and Amorphous Thin-Film Silicon (a-Si, TF-Si) in which CdTe and CIGS are most commonly used in our market. CdTe is one of the most utilized thin-film PV materials after silicon as has the low cost of manufacturing but its efficiency isn’t quite high. CIGS has complex manufacturing and operation. Both CdTe and CIGS are very sensitive and require more protection.

Researchers have developed new n-type and p-type copper nitride semiconductors which will replace the normal harmful and rare material in PV cell. Copper nitride is a simple and even environment-friendly compound they have found an efficient way to produce Copper nitride by a novel catalytic reaction process utilizing ammonia and oxidant gas. Copper nitride is utilized as an n-type semiconductor having the excess electron. Prediction for theoretical calculation says that when this Copper nitride crystals are doped with fluorine element in its open space it is transmitting into a p-type semiconductor.  This material is cost-effective, non-toxic, and even found abundant. The Thin film photovoltaic manufactured by this semiconducting have high efficiency and even less costly than to silicon PV cell and have a bright future for solar energy.

All about Renewable Energy.

Renewable Energy (003)Around the world, the use of Renewable energy is rising too actively cause these technologies holds the potential to fight Climate Change.

What is Renewable Energy?

The Renewable Energy is generated from sources that naturally replenish themselves and never run out. The common sources are solar wind hydro, geothermal and biogas, about 80% of the total energy consumed by humans is arrived from fossil fuels, However, the Renewable energy is the fastest source of energy growing throughout the world.

Benefits of Renewable Energy.
The most important Benefit it will combat Climate Change because it does not create direct greenhouses gas emission. The only emission they produce is indirect more specifically the emission-producing the parts of the technology equipment, installation, operation and maintenance, even those are minimum

Renewable energy can decrease pollution and reduce threat towards our health. Whereas wind, solar and hydroelectric system creates no air pollution emission and geothermal and Biogas systems emission are much lower than other non-renewable energy resources.

Renewable energy is a reliable source of power because the renewable energy sources are renewable and never run out. The renewable energy investment may take more money, but the product price will be stable for a long time go and the maintenance is also of low cost. So, all round profit to the customers, sellers, and nature as well.

 Well talking about the advantages it’s also have some drawbacks.

It is difficult for Renewable energy to generate the power at the same large scale as fossil fuels, building wind farms and Dams can disturb wildlife and migration pattern and lead to ecological destruction, both solar and wind energy are intermittent they only generate power when the sun is shining or while the wind is blowing. As battery also has its limit to store power so it cannot store extra power for later use.

However Renewable energy presents some challenges, but it also offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the greenhouse gas emission and pollution of fossil fuels and making an advance technology make it more accessible, affordable and efficient.

GLOBAL WARMING: What a Nice Way to Die!!!

1A dangerous atmospheric deviation, the slow warming of Earth’s surface, climate and seas, is caused by human movement, basically the consuming of petroleum derivatives that pump methane, carbon dioxide, and other ozone harming substances into the air. The impacts of a dangerous atmospheric deviation are the ecological and social varieties caused (straightforwardly or in a roundabout way) by human outflows of ozone harming substances. There is a logical agreement that environmental change is happening, and that human exercises are the significant driver.2

Future impacts of environmental change will fluctuate contingent upon environmental change arrangements and social improvement. The two primary arrangements to address environmental change are adjusting to the effects of environmental change and decreasing human ozone depleting substance emanations.

We can distinguish this occurrence continuously in numerous spots. Ice is softening in mountain ice sheets and both polar ice tops. Lakes around the globe are warming quickly — at times faster than the encompassing environment. Creatures are changing movement examples and plants are changing the dates of action, for example, trees maturing their leaves prior in the spring and dropping them later in the fall.

Changes have been seen in the sum, force, recurrence, and kind of precipitation. Across the board increments in substantial precipitation have happened, even in places where add up to rain sums have diminished. With medium certainty, IPCC certainty that huma3n impacts had added to an expansion in substantial precipitation occasions at the worldwide scale.

Projections of future changes in precipitation indicate general increments in the worldwide normal, yet with significant moves in where and how precipitation falls. 24 Projections recommend a decrease in precipitation in the subtropics, and an expansion in precipitation in sub polar scopes and some central regions. At the end of the day, areas which are dry at present will as a rule turn out to be even drier, while districts that are right now wet will all in all turn out to be even wetter. This projection does not have any significant bearing to each region, and now and again can be adjusted by nearby conditions.

Antarctica increase ocean level ascent


According to a major new international climate assessment funded by NASA Ice losses from Antarctica have tripled since 2012, increasing global sea heights by 0.11 inch in that timeframe alone. The discoveries are from a remarkable atmosphere evaluation known as the Ice Sheet Form Balance Inter-correlation Exercise. As per our examination, there has been a stage increment in ice misfortunes from Antarctica amid the previous decade, and the landmass is causing ocean levels to rise faster today than whenever in the previous 25 years.2

 It is the most total picture of Antarctic ice sheet change to date – 84 researchers from 44 worldwide links joined 24 satellite reviews to create the evaluation. . This must be a worry for the administrations we trust to ensure our beachfront urban communities and networks. This must be a worry for the administrations we trust to ensure our beachfront urban communities and networks.  We are discovering that ice relinquishes are more presented to growing sea and air high temperature than we thought, said Dow. There are double procedures going ahead here.  This data could affect our anticipated courses of events for ice rack breakdown and coming about ocean level increasing speed because of environmental change. As hotter salted water disintegrates channels into the ice that joins ice sheets to stable land, it additionally creates monstrous vertical breaks part icy masses from above and underneath. Surface water liquefying over the ice retires then fills these breaks, accelerate the issue further. This investigation is supplementary confirmation that the warming impacts of environmental change are affecting our planet in ways that are regularly more unsafe than we maybe had idea, said Dow. There are numerous more powerless ice retires in the Antarctic that, on the off chance that they breakdown up, will quicken the procedures of ocean level rise. The UEA and St Andrews group are making a beeline for the Amundsen Sea in 2019 to enroll the assistance of another gathering of seals to spectator this remote area as a major aspect of the as of late declared International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration.

Plastic roads: The radical plan to bury its garbage beneath the streets

Plastic Roads_Climate Change Congress 2018_ (003)

Plastic roads are roads made either entirely of plastic or composites of plastic with other materials.

The implementation of plastics in roads also opens a new option for recycling post-consumer plastics and make the Environment clean. A new road building technique for the 21st century is advancing fast in India today.

More than 33,796 km of roads in India are plastic roads, according to a World Economic Forum report.

Using recycled plastic to build roads not only curbs pollution but also creates jobs, said experts. And there’s more to it. India’s plastic roads made from recycled materials are not only greener but are also stronger and maintenance-free and could last about three times as long as conventional road structures, according to new research. Under the government’s massive plastic recycling programme, waste pickers collect plastic litter which are shredded in machines subsidised by the Indian government. Then they sell it to road builders.

According to a World Economic Forum (WEF) report, plastic can make roads more durable against extreme weather — floods and extreme heat.

How it works:

Plastic waste — mostly water or soda bottles are first sorted. After sorting, the material is cleaned, dried, and shredded. The shredded plastic is mixed and melted at around 170°C. Hot bitumen is then added and mixed with the melted plastic. After mixing the mixture is laid as one would with regular asphalt concrete. Home-grown, tested technology Now, calls is growing for public works authorities to build roads with a tested technology using plastic waste, which reduces costs and makes roads more durable and thus safer.

“Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve the problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic,” said Isher Judge Ahluwalia, former head of a government committee on urban infrastructure.

The Chemistry behind it:

A technology developed by Rajagopalan Vasudevan, a chemistry professor at Thiagarajar College of Engineering in the southern city of Madurai, uses finely-shredded plastic waste that is added to heated bitumen.

This mix is poured over stones.

The plastic waste can include anything from sweet wrappers to shopping bags. The mix cuts the quantity of bitumen required by 10 percent, Vasudevan said.

 “The road which is built from plastics is still intact – there are no potholes, no cracks. That is proof of its strength and durability, plus it uses waste plastic that otherwise litters streets and rivers.”

“We are going to be generating waste plastic, and we are going to be building roads for the foreseeable future,”

Climate Change: Threat to Biodiversity

Unleash your research (1)

A Global issue in the current situation, due to several activities of Human or by the Natural disaster.  Alongside factor pollution (air, water, soil etc) and overexploitation to land-use change and habitat loss. Moreover, in many places, these are still greater immediate dangers world’s wildlife than climate change. According to a new set of reports from the leading global organization on ecosystems and biodiversity Climate change will be the fastest-growing cause of species loss.

As per the new series of reports emphasize that action on global warming is also active in favor of wild plants and animals.

Land degradation, biodiversity loss, and climate change are three different phase of the same central challenge:

“We cannot afford to tackle any one of these three threats in isolation—they each deserve the highest policy priority and must be addressed together.”- Chairman Robert Watson

Either by human activities or by natural disasters—may be adversely affecting more than half a 7.3 billion people (approx)  around the globe, resulting in losses in the health of biodiversity and ecosystem

Deforestation, the destruction of wetlands and other forms of land conversion and the industries, chemical waste, automobiles release massive amounts of carbon and other harmful gases into the atmosphere causing global warming. Climate change can continue the cycle by thawing out frozen ecosystems, creating harsher conditions for vegetation to survive, and increasing the severity of storms and other natural disasters, which can also damage natural landscapes.

There are many factors which cause climate changes. We should step forward and plan every move so that we can slow down the process.

Mosquito-borne Diseases on the Uptick—Thanks to Global Warming

Global Warming Enhances Dengue (2) (002)

Since the year 2000, Climate Change is affecting our environment in various ways. The warming conditions of the Climate Change are not only responsible for rising ocean but also to increase the infectious diseases like Malaria, Dengue fever and West Nile Viruses which creates mosquito-friendly habitats.

Dengue is known as “break-bone fever” which infects around 390 million people each year throughout the world. About 54 million cases in Latin America and the Caribbean has been reported. It is a fatal disease, causes flu-like symptoms and there is no cure for this disease, only a early detection and expert care is known to be most effective way to overcome this infection. According to the World Health Organization, in the last 50 years the number of cases has increased 30-fold.

Dengue is a vector-borne disease that spreads best in warm Climates. Only two species of mosquitoes are suitable for spreading the disease,i.e.

# the primary one is Aedes  Aegypti which is also known as yellow-fever mosquito which can be recognized by white stripes on its legs.It is active during the day and is a urban-lover where it also breeds in any container  holding water,like planters or waste tires.

#the secondary vector is Ae. Albopictus, which is a recent invader to the U.S.

Half a Degree Can Make a Big Difference

Upto now, there is about 54 million case has been reported, but by around 2050, with a warming scenario of 3.7 0celcius, this number could increase by 7.5 million additional cases a year. It is also recognized that limiting warming to 1.5 0celcius would have benefits for human health; the magnitude of this benefits remains unquantified.

Which Countries in the Region are Most at Risk?

The areas most affected by the increase in dengue would be southern Mexico, the Caribbean, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and the coastal regions of Brazil. In Brazil alone, global warming of no more than 1.5 degrees might prevent 1.4 million dengue cases a year.

People living in previously untouched would have less built-up immunity and can easily get sick and it could spread to regions that have historically seen few cases earlier. Keeping to 1.5 0celcius could limit such a geographical expansion.

Flexible polymer threads For stretchable and healable Application

Thin-film field-impact transistors are fundamental components of stretchable electronic gadgets for wearable hardware. The greater part of the materials and segments of such transistors should be stretchable and mechanically hearty. Although there has been late advance towards stretchable conductors. The acknowledgment of stretchable semiconductors has concentrated chiefly on strain-pleasing designing of materials or mixing of nano strands or nanowires into elastomers. An elective approach depends on utilizing semiconductors that are naturally stretchable with the goal that they can be created utilizing standard preparing methods. Atomic stretchability can be upgraded when conjugated polymers containing adjusted side-chains and sectioned spines are implanted with more adaptable sub-atomic building pieces. Here we show a plan idea for stretchable semiconducting polymers, which includes acquainting synthetic moieties with advance dynamic non-covalent crosslinking of the conjugated polymers.


These non-covalent crosslinking moieties can experience a vitality scattering instrument through breakage of bonds when strain is connected while holding high charge transport capacities. Subsequently flexible polymer can recuperate its high field-impact portability execution (in excess of 1 square centimetre for each volt every second) even after a hundred cycles at 100 for each penny connected strain. Natural thin-film field-impact transistors manufactured from these materials showed versatility as high as 1.3 square centimetres for each volt every second and a high on/off current proportion surpassing a million. The field-impact versatility stayed as high as 1.12 square centimetres for every volt every second at 100 for each penny strain along the course opposite to the strain. The field-impact portability of harmed gadgets can be completely recouped after a dissolvable and warm mending treatment. At last, we effectively created a skin-motivated stretchable natural transistor working under distortions that may be normal in a wearable gadget

Joining of dynamic non-covalent crosslinking between adaptable polymer chains is an imperative strategy for accomplishing high stretchability, self-mending properties. The dynamic bonds can without much of a stretch be broken to permit vitality scattering upon strain along these lines making the framework more tolerant of strain and mechanical boosts. Additionally the bonds can be changed to recuperate the underlying mechanical property and self-mend. Among the distinctive sorts of dynamic bonds, hydrogen bonds are especially appropriate for skin-motivated hardware attributable to their unconstrained development and mending ability. Such polar substituents in natural semiconductors have gotten expanded consideration in late natural hardware examine, however for the most part in delivering self-gathered nanostructures rather than utilizing them to enhance mechanical properties.