Category Archives: Endocrinology

Vitamin D supplements may promote weight reduction in obese children

1Vitamin D supplements may promote weight loss and reduce risk factors for future heart and metabolic disease in obese and overweight children. The findings indicate that vitamin D is the simple supplementation may be part of an effective strategy to tackle childhood obesity and reduce the risk of serious health problems, such as heart disease, in adulthood.

Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem worldwide, which leads to the development of expensive, debilitating and serious complications, including diabetes and heart disease, in later life. Vitamin D deficiency is stereotypically associated with impaired bone health, in recent years it has been increasingly linked with increased body fat accumulation and obesity, with the precise nature of this relationship currently under intense investigation by scientists. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the health and weight of obese children and adolescents had not yet been investigated.

In this study, researchers assessed 232 obese children and adolescents over 1 year, with 117 randomly assigned to receive vitamin D supplementation, in accordance with the guidelines on treatment and prevention of deficiency. Levels of vitamin D, body fat, and blood markers of liver function and heart health were assessed at the start of the study and 12 months later. The study reported that children given vitamin D supplements had significantly lower BMI, body fat and improved cholesterol levels after a year of supplementation.

These findings suggest that simple vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of obese and overweight children developing serious heart and metabolic complications in later life.

The team now plan to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the health of obese children and adolescents that already have unhealthy conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood glucose all of which increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

Although these initial findings indicate that vitamin D could be used in the treatment of obesity, there remains a lack of evidence on the safety and long-term effects of supplementation, particularly if there is no vitamin D deficiency. However, if your child is obese or overweight I recommend that you consult your primary care physician for advice, and consider having their vitamin D levels tested.

Congenital causes of infertility in females

The cause of infertility may be difficult to decide but may incorporate lacking levels of certain hormones in both men and women, and inconvenience with ovulation in women. The fundamental side effect is a failure to induce pregnantly. In numerous cases, there are no additional side effects.

A few changes to chromosomes or gene mutation changes cause irregular sperm generation or blockages to sperm stream that lead to male infertility. The foremost common hereditary causes of infertility are chromosomal conditions that influence sperm generation. Hereditary or acquired chromosomal abnormalities causes or induces chromosomal abandons caused by too few or as well numerous chromosomes, or issues within the structure of the chromosomes, such as Down syndrome/disorder and an additional duplicate of chromosome 21 and sex chromosome variations from the norm and the single quality defects – a change in one quality causes the deformity.


Chromosomally unusual embryos have a low rate of implantation within the mother’s uterus, frequently driving to unsuccessful labors. In the event that an unusual fetus does embed, the pregnancy may still result in premature delivery or the birth of a child with physical issues, developmental delay, or mental hindrance.

Several types of chromosomal impediments:

  • A misplaced piece of a chromosome (deletion)
  • An upside-down chromosome (inversion)
  • A alter within the gene’s DNA arrangement (mutation)
  • Too numerous or as well few chromosomes (aneuploidy)
  • Chromosome pieces attached to the wrong chromosome (translocation)

 Translocation is the foremost common of these. In spite of the fact that a parent who carries a translocation is regularly ordinary, his or her developing life may get as well much or as well small hereditary material, and an unsuccessful labor frequently results. Couples with particular chromosome absconds may advantage from the pre-implantation hereditary conclusion (PGD) in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Down disorder is as a rule related to advanced maternal age and may be a common illustration of aneuploidy. Down syndrome is caused by having an additional number-21 chromosome (three rather than two). It is additionally alluded to as trisomy 21.


Acquired hereditary diseases:

Acquired hereditary infection due to irregular qualities or transformations. Chromosome investigation of the parents’ blood distinguishes such an acquired hereditary cause in less than 5 percent of couples.

Single-gene anomalies are transformations caused by changes within the DNA arrangement of a quality, which deliver proteins that permit cells to work appropriately. Quality of gene alters the functioning of cells due to a need of a protein. Single-gene disarranges as a rule show a family history of a particular hereditary infection such as cystic fibrosis (CF) – a hopeless and lethal infection influencing the mucous organs of crucial organs – and Tay Sachs, moreover a lethal clutter, in which destructive amounts of a greasy substance construct up in tissues and nerve cells within the brain.

Hazards of HIV Associated with Fertility in Women Suffering from PCOS

HIV has a vast effect in women as well as with men HIV which plays a major role in effecting reproductive functions of such and in women it leads to failure of conception neither its effect on the fetus in pre-birth of baby and also show the effect to mother and child during the breastfeeding sequence, this has become the major issue in women with PCOS. The chances of getting pregnant are very less in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. In this case, if women affected with HIV that brings the major difficulty to get fertile. There are several advanced techniques to make get pregnant and conceive are like Assisted Reproductive Technique, in vitro fertilization etc.

PCOS congress

Impact of HIV/AIDS on women could be a alter in fertility levels, which is impacted in a portion through changed behavior. Behaviors that have been to a great extent impacted such as expanded condom utilize, a deferred onset of sexual relations, older age at to begin with the union, and less premarital sexual relations, have driven down fertility rates. Lower rates of remarriage after an AIDS-related passing of an accomplice due to disgrace related with the surviving accomplice may moreover decrease ripeness levels. HIV/AIDS treatment is broadly accessible, positive child rearing is on the rise.

For the HIV-infected woman must be the caution to the gynecologic issues that are predominant in this populace. Among those confronted by the gynecologist are menstrual anomalies, lower genital tract neoplasia, sexually transmitted contaminations, the require for gynecologic surgery, and menopausal issues counting osteopenia/osteoporosis. Contraception in HIV seropositive ladies presents one of a kind administration issues, since of the need for a double part of the anticipation of both pregnancy and HIV transmission, the conceivable impact of birth control on HIV disease, and the interaction between birth control and HIV therapies.

The hazard of mother-to-child transmission is as low as 2% in these ranges, and treatment has drawn out life anticipation for numerous potential guardians with HIV Natural components too impact ripeness rates in HIV-positive women and men ladies with HIV may discover it more troublesome to conceive than their HIV-negative partners. HIV tainted women encounter decreased pregnancy rates and higher rates of both arranged premature birth and premature delivery. HIV/AIDS may initiate sterility, increment fetal mortality, diminish generation of spermatozoa, and now and then diminish the recurrence of sexual intercourse, all contributing to declining fertility. HIV disease may impact ladies to intentionally end a pregnancy out of fear of clearing out a vagrant or transmitting HIV to the child.

HIV influences the placenta by interferometer with the exchange of imperative supplements to the baby, or that the infection causes unusual improvement of the developing life. Other speculations incorporate a coordinate relationship between HIV and the fetal thymus organ, as well as an expanded chance of disease due to the debilitated resistant framework of the mother. HIV may moreover straightforwardly impact the capacity of HIV-positive men to deliver solid sperm.

By implication, women with HIV may encounter infertility due to coinfection with another sexually transmitted infection. Complications of HIV, such as the expanded chance of cervical anomalies, early menopause, pelvic incendiary infection (which can cause scarring of the Fallopian tubes), and extreme squandering may moreover contribute to barrenness in ladies.

Conception, or getting to be pregnant, is of specific concern for serodiscordant couples (those in which as it were one accomplice is HIV positive). More secure sex is suggested, which more often than not anticipates pregnancy. In any case, helped regenerative innovations may help serodiscordant couples in accomplishing pregnancy whereas at the same time minimizing the hazard of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner.

Diabetes and Frozen Shoulder

Among the numerous complications frequently connected with diabetes, one of the foremost mystifying and painful is the frozen shoulder. Adhesive capsulitis, the condition’s biological term, is a pathological condition of the shoulder joint which causes the painful and gradual loss of motion.

The connective tissue of the shoulder joint inflames and stiffens, causing chronic pain, limiting mobility and disturbing sleep. The associated pain varies between sharp stings that radiate through the bicep to dull ache.

Link between diabetes and frozen shoulder:

There’s no conclusive connect link between the shoulder condition and the disease. Few studies indicate frozen shoulder is caused by glycosylation of the collagen in the shoulder joint.

Metabolic Diseases Img

What Happens to the Shoulder?

Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by three stages, in spite of the fact that the severity and length of the stages may vary from individuals to individuals.

  • Stage One: Freezing – The most painful stage of the condition. During this stage, there’s a slow onset of pain coinciding with a progressive reduction in the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. Even simple movements like behind the back or reaching above the head are accompanied by tremendous pain and cramping.
  • Stage Two: Frozen- There’s a slow reduction of pain during this stage, but stiffness remains.
  • Stage Three: Thawing- During this final stage, there’s a gradual enhancement in ROM, as well as a lessening of stiffness and pain.


Frozen shoulder sees a wide extend of treatments. Diagnosis for the condition involves a physical exam, MRI, and x-ray, which is best for distinguishing soft tissue issues. Once diagnosed, physicians can advise an assortment of approaches, including physical therapy, surgical manipulation, steroid injections, and even supervised neglect.

Physical therapy is the foremost treatment for frozen shoulder. Therapists devise a particular exercise and stretching regimen to address the limited motion, restricted rotation, pain and strength. The regimen frequently utilizes heat and can take few weeks or even months for recognizable improvement.

Frozen shoulder proceeds to confuse health experts, and, surprisingly, there’s no way to prevent it. Early detection and proper treatment can allow a patient with diabetes to avoid the most painful and consequences of the condition.


Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be debilitating fertility

1Endocrine system:

The most work of endocrine organs is to discharge hormones specifically into the circulation system. Hormones are chemical substances that influence the movement of another portion of the body (target location). In substance, hormones serve as couriers, controlling and planning exercises all through the body.

Eventually, hormones control the work of whole organs, influencing such different forms as development and improvement, propagation, and sexual characteristics. Hormones too impact the way the body employments and stores vitality and control the volume of liquid and the levels of salts and sugar (glucose) within the blood. Exceptionally little sums of hormones can trigger very huge reactions within the body.2

Potential EDCs are for the foremost portion man-made, found in various materials such as pesticides, metals, included substances or contaminants in nourishment, and individual care things. EDCs have been suspected to be related with adjusted regenerative work in individuals and females; opened up rehash of breast cancer, unordinary movement plans and neurodevelopmental delays in children, as well as changes in secure work.

In this way, diethylstilbestrol (DES) a non-steroidal estrogen, which is respected as a verification of concept, actuates clear cell carcinoma among youthful ladies. EDCS may be found in plastic bottles and metal nourishment cans (BPA), restorative gadgets (phthalates), cleansers, fire retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), nourishment (BPA), toys (phthalates), beauty care products and drugs (parabens), and pesticides (alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol). The pernicious impacts of endocrine disruptors constitute a genuine open wellbeing issue. Be that as it may concerning the components of activity of EDCs, numerous questions stay unanswered and require assist examinations.3

Human presentation to EDCs happens by means of ingestion of nourishment, tidy and water, by means of inward breath of gasses and particles within the discus, and through the skin. EDCs can too be exchanged from the pregnant lady to the creating embryo or child through the placenta and breast drain. Pregnant mothers and children are the foremost helpless populaces to be influenced by formative exposures, and the impact of exposures to EDCs may not end up apparent until afterward in life. Inquire about too appears that it may increment the helplessness to non-communicable infections. Number of variables related to fertility, and one of the most conclusions of their consider was that destitute semen quality contributed to increments in infertility and the utilize of helped regenerative innovation. Numerous of the male regenerative issues can be due to harm to the testicles amid embryonic advancement. Whereas the regenerative issues seem emerge from hereditary changes.

Chemicals are a fundamental component of our day by day lives. But a few chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors, can have destructive impacts on the body’s endocrine (hormone) framework. Hormones act in exceptionally little sums and at exact minutes in time to direct the body’s advancement, development, propagation, digestion system, insusceptibility and behaviour. Endocrine disruptors meddled with normal hormone frameworks, and the wellbeing impacts can be felt long after the presentation has halted. Presentation to endocrine disruptors can have life-long impacts and can indeed have results for the next era.