Category Archives: Diabetic

Everything you need to know about gene therapy shown to cure type 2 diabetes and obesity in mice, researchers report

4A single supervision of an adeno-associated viral vector booming the Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 gene resulted in genetic manipulation of the liver, skeletal muscle or adipose tissue to rapidly enhance Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein. This protein is a hormone secreted naturally by several organs that acts on many tissues for the maintenance of correct energy metabolism. By inducing FGF21 production through gene therapy the animal lost weight and decreased insulin resistance, this causes the development of type 2 diabetes.

The therapy has been tested successfully in two different mouse models of obesity, induced either by genetic mutations or diet. Also, the researchers scrutinized that when administered to healthy mice, the gene therapy endorsed healthy aging and prevented age associated weight gain and insulin resistance.

After treatment with adeno-associated viral- Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, mice lost weight and reduced fat accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue; steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation of the liver were also reversed. This led to an increase in healthy aging and in insulin sensitivity without any adverse side effects.

The results have been reproduced after genetic manipulation of three different tissues to produce the Fibroblast Growth Factor 21. This gives flexibility to the treatment, since it permits to choose each time the most appropriate tissue and in case some impediment prevents manipulating any of the tissues, it can be applied to any of the others. When a tissue produces Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein and secretes it into the bloodstream, it will be distributed throughout the body.

The authors highlight the significance of these results, since the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity is growing at alarming rates around the world. Obesity also enhances the risk of mortality and indicates an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular and immune diseases, arthritis, hypertension, and some types of cancer.

The results also reveal that the scrutinization of the gene therapy ensured against the risk of tumor formation in the liver in response to a hyper caloric diet for a prolonged period of time.

The native Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 protein has a short half-life when administered using conventional procedures. For this reason, the pharmaceutical industry has developed Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 analogues and has already conducted clinical trials. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 mimetics, however require periodic administration to mediate clinical advantages and but may raise immunological issues related to the administration of exogenous proteins. The gene therapy vectors used by researcher, however, induce the mice to produce for many years the same FGF21 hormone naturally produced by the body, after a single administration and without any adverse effects.

For scientist the next step will be to test this therapy in larger animals before moving to clinical trials with patients. AAV-mediated gene therapy has been approved for the treatment of several diseases, due to its efficacy and safety profile. Similarly, there exists extensive clinical experience in applying adeno associated viral-mediated gene transfer to liver and skeletal muscle. Subsequently, the therapy described in this study comprises the basis for the future clinical translation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 gene transfer to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related comorbidities.

Eating Raspberries decrease postprandial blood sugar in Type 2 Diabetes???

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Reduced risk of several noncommunicable age and lifestyle-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus can be aided by consuming diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The components of fruits and vegetables influences the cellular process that affects the risk factors and decreases the chances of developing chronic diseases. Recent studies have focused on health benefits of fruits and vegetables with polyphenols, carotenoids and other phytochemicals with biological activities.

Raspberries are ending up progressively refreshing for their culinary flexibility and for their numerous different applications. This is likely a result of expanding consumer enthusiasm for wellbeing and health in parallel with expanding research publications and media communications that describe the special supplements and phytochemical composition of Raspberries and their potential role in alleviating ailment hazard. Raspberries have therapeutic interest from around 400 A.D. Various parts of raspberry plant have been used for the treatment of morning sickness, digestion etc. improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia and related metabolic impairments are seen due to dietary polyphenols and bioactive compounds in berries. Diseases like cancer, heart diseases and circulatory diseases can be fought by eating red raspberries due to their rich polyphenolic contents.

Raspberries lowers postprandial hyperglycemia and Inflammation because of its low calories and high polyphenols content. People with type 2 diabetes can fight against postprandial blood sugar and acute chronic Inflammation. Eating 1-2 cups of raspberries can lower LDL cholesterol levels and triglycerides and rises HDL cholesterol levels.

Mechanism for reducing postprandial glucose levels is to limit glucose absorption by hindering α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.  Raspberry contrasted with different concentrates of berries were best in repressing α-amylase, while inhibitory consequences for α-glucosidase were intermediate. Raspberry separate fractionation uncovered that the unbound anthocyanin-improved division was more successful against α-glucosidase than the first concentrate, though the α-amylase inhibitors were gathered in the bound part. LC-MS-MS recognized the inhibitory parts as ellagitannins. proanthocyanidins were essential inhibitors of α-amylase movement. Together, the investigations propose that diverse polyphenolic segments of Raspberries may impact distinctive strides in starch absorption and have potential ramifications for postprandial glycemic control.

Raspberries have a low glycemic index with less likely to cause increase in blood sugar levels compared to other carbohydrate foods. people with Type 2 diabetes who ate three servings of raspberries (and other low-glycemic-index fruits) had improvements in their HbA1c levels. Besides having a low glycemic index, raspberries are high in fiber, which may also help with blood sugar control.

Raspberries contribute a few significant fundamental supplements and other bioactive segments to the eating regimen. Among consumable plant sustenance’s, they give one of the most astounding measures of dietary fiber per 100 kcal and are among the few plant nourishments that give a wellspring of ellagitannins and anthocyanins. In vitro investigations give valuable information in understanding the potential human health ramifications of plant bioactivity through their targets and mechanism of activity.

World Diabetes Day – Human Metabolism 2019

Diabetes is perpetual, pulverizing and now and again lethal sickness, in which the body either can’t create insulin or can’t legitimately utilize the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that controls the measurement of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Diabetes prompts high glucose levels, which can harm organs, veins, and nerves. The body needs insulin to utilize sugar as a vitality source. fourteenth November was picked as “World Diabetes Day” as it harmonizes with Frederick Banting’s birthday, the man who, alongside Charles Best and John James Rickard Macleod, considered that prompted the disclosure of insulin in 1922. This was an exceptional accomplishment in the treatment of diabetes.

Types of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes happens when the invulnerable framework erroneously assaults and slaughters the beta cells of the pancreas. No, or practically nothing, insulin is discharged into the body. Subsequently, sugar develops in the blood as opposed to being utilized as vitality. Around 5 percent of individuals with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It, for the most part, creates in youth or youthfulness, however, can create in adulthood. Type 1 diabetes is constantly treated with insulin. Dinner arranging likewise assists with keeping glucose at the correct levels.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes happens when the body can’t appropriately utilize the insulin that is discharged or does not make enough insulin. Thus, sugar develops in the blood as opposed to being utilized as vitality. Around 95 percent of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. It frequently creates in grown-ups, yet youngsters can be influenced. Contingent upon the seriousness of sort 2 diabetes, it might be overseen through physical action and supper arranging, or may likewise require drugs or potentially insulin to control glucose all the more successfully.

Gestational diabetes

The third sort of diabetes, gestational diabetes, is a brief condition that happens amid pregnancy. It influences around two to four percent all things considered and includes an expanded danger of creating diabetes for both mother and youngster.

Diabetes and a few complications

Having high glucose can cause diabetes-related difficulties, as ceaseless kidney infection, foot issues, non-horrible lower appendage (leg, foot, toe, and so forth.) removal, eye sickness (retinopathy) that can prompt visual impairment, heart assault, stroke, uneasiness, nerve harm, and erectile brokenness (men). Diabetes-related inconveniences can be intense and even hazardous. The prior a man is determined to have diabetes the better it is. Legitimately overseeing glucose levels lessens the danger of creating them.

Did you know?

About one out of two, 46 percent of the 415 million grown-ups living with diabetes are uninformed of their condition. The greater part of these cases is type 2 diabetes. World Diabetes Day plans to feature the need to screen, analyze and furnish proper treatment to individuals with diabetes crosswise over nations. “Eyes on Diabetes” is the subject of World Diabetes Day this year. It is a call for activity to screen individuals at the danger of sort 2 diabetes.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes Complication

Cannabis, or marijuana, could be a drug derived from the cannabis plant that’s utilized for recreational utilize, therapeutic purposes and religious or spiritual rites. Cannabis plants deliver a one of a kind family of compounds called cannabinoids. From these, the main psychoactive (brain function-affecting) compound is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis contains high levels of THC, as well as other psychoactive chemicals, which deliver the ‘high’ users feel when breathing in or ingesting it. Two other compounds, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabidiol (CBD) have been appeared to have benefits for blood sugar control and digestion system in diabetes considers.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes Complication (2)

Individuals with Type 1 diabetes are generally advised to keep their hemoglobin levels below 6.5 percent, but the cannabis users have average readings of 8.4 percent. This was said to represent hazardously lifted blood sugar that can increment the hazard of heart assaults, strokes, kidney disappointment, visual deficiency, removals, and death.

Individuals with type 1 diabetes who utilize marijuana may double their hazard of creating a life-threatening complication. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the condition happens when there’s not sufficient insulin to break down sugar within the body, so the body burns fat for fuel instead. This triggers a build-up of chemicals known as ketones, which make blood more acidic and can lead to coma or death. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune malady that develops when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells within the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that channels the sugar from foods into the body’s cells to be utilized as fuel. Individuals with type 1 diabetes not make sufficient insulin on their own. They must take shots or utilize an insulin pump to deliver the insulin they need to their bodies.

Marijuana Use Tied to Serious Diabetes ComplicationHowever, getting the dosage right could be a difficult adjusting act. Too much insulin can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels that make individuals shaky, confused and irritable, and if not treated, can cause somebody to pass out and conceivably to die. But too small insulin can lead to high blood sugar levels. Over a long time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious complications related to diabetes, such as heart and kidney disease, vision problems and amputations. Too small insulin can moreover lead to DKA in as little as a few hours. Individuals with type 1 diabetes need to be locked in with their disease and manage insulin dosing always, even those on the pump with closed loop systems.

Eating Disorder

EatingIf you are obsessed over food, body weight and shape, there might be a chance of having Eating Disorder. People often think that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. But they are actually serious and often fatal mental illness and are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in an individual. According to various studies on eating disorders, the results found that the frequency of occurrence is much less in men as compared to adolescent girls and young adult women and a large proportion of eating disorder patients were exercising excessively during an acute phase of the disorder.

Types of Eating Disorders

They are divided into three diagnostic categories: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge-eating disorder.

  • Anorexia Nervosa, characterized by inadequate intake of food. In this condition, people may have unrealistic perception of overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight and thus, they severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. It can lead to damaging health effects, such as loss of bones and skin integrity, increases the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems, brain damage, multi-organ failure, and infertility. The mortality rate is highest in this disease as compared to other mental disorders, either due to complications associated with starvation or the patient commits suicide.
  • Bulimia Nervosa, characterized by an excessive intake of food followed by compensatory behaviors for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Although people usually maintain their relatively normal and healthy weight, but the irregular food behaviors can have injuring effects, such as chronically inflamed and sore throat, severe gastrointestinal problems, severe dehydration, and various heart difficulties resulting from an electrolyte imbalance.
  • Atypical eating disorders: There are many other types of eating disorders including Binge-eating Disorder (lack of control on eating), other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), Diabulimia, etc.

Cause of Eating Disorder

Although the cause of eating disorders is not clear but it seems like combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors plays an important role in the development of these illnesses.

  • A high proportion of individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (way the person sees themselves) also had some type of eating disorder.
  • Biological conditions such as hormone irregularities and nutrition deficiencies can also lead to eating disorders.
  • The environmental factors include Dysfunctional family dynamic, aesthetically oriented sports, Professions and careers, childhood traumas and other stressful transitions.

Treatment for an Eating Disorder

People often ignore such conditions which then results in severe adverse effects. Because of severity and complexities of these conditions, it has become necessary to establish a comprehensive and professional treatment. Addressed with medical doctors, nutritionists, and therapists for complete care, the treatment includes:

  • Individual, group, and/or family psychotherapy
  • Medical care and monitoring
  • Nutritional counselling
  • Medications

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes

Diabetic

The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affecting well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease and potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes.

In a study to the genetic variance of human metabolism, specialists have identified thirty one regions of the genome that were related with levels of circulating metabolites, i.e., small molecules that take part in different chemical reactions of human body. Many of the studied metabolites are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or related disorders, accordingly the loci uncovered may provide valuable insight into the biological processes leading to common diseases.

Lab tests used in the clinic typically monitor one or few circulating metabolites. The researchers used a high throughput method called nuclear magnetic resonance that can measure more than hundred different metabolites in one assay. This provides a considerably more in-depth picture of circulating metabolic compounds.

The group assayed 117 detailed metabolic markers, including amino acids, lipids and lipoprotein subclasses, and conducted the largest genome-wide association analysis of this type, in terms of study sample size of 8330 individuals and 7.7 million genomic markers studied. They revealed, in total, 31 genetic regions related with the blood levels of the metabolites.

Among the discoveries were two new loci influencing serum cholesterol subclass measures, well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease, and five new loci affecting levels of amino acids recently discovered to be potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The found variants have significant effects on the metabolite levels, the effect sizes being in general considerably larger than the known common variants for complex disease have.

Additionally, using twin pair samples, the scientists indicated that the metabolite levels show a high degree of heritability. This result suggests that the studied metabolites are describing better the underlying biology than the routinely used lab tests. In this way, the examination provides further support for the use of detailed data on multitude of metabolites in genetic studies to provide novel biological insights and to help in elucidating the processes leading to common diseases.

Evening preference, lack of sleep associated with higher BMI in people with prediabetes

9Individuals with prediabetes, who go to bed later, eat meals later and are more active and alert later in the day. The individuals who have an evening preference have higher body mass indices compared with people with prediabetes who do things earlier in the day, or exhibit morning preference. According to study, the higher BMI among people with evening preference is related to their lack of sufficient sleep.

Prediabetes is where glucose levels are higher than typical however not yet high enough to be Type 2 diabetes. Without modifications to exercise and diet, patients with prediabetes have a very high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

Lack of sufficient sleep has been previously connected to an increased risk for various health conditions, including obesity and diabetes. Evening preference has likewise been connected to higher weight and higher risk for diabetes.

Diabetes is such a widespread disease with such an impact on quality of life, that identifying new lifestyle factors that might play into its development can help us advice patients with a beginning stage of the disease on things they can do to turn it around and prevent prediabetes from becoming full-blown diabetes.

Participants who scored high in morningness answered questions showing that they preferred to wake up earlier, have exercises prior, and felt more alert earlier in the day compared with individuals who scored high on eveningness. Sleep duration and timing were obtained using a questionnaire and the extent of social jet lag was assessed for each participant. Social jet lag reflects a shift in sleep timing among weekdays and weekends. Greater social jetlag has previously been shown to be associated with higher BMI in some populations. Average sleep duration was around seven hours per night.

The scientists found that for participants younger than 60 years of age, more elevated levels of social jet lag were related with a higher BMI. Among participants older than 60 years old, those with more evening preference had higher BMIs and this impact was partly due to having insufficient sleep but not social jet lag. Evening preference was directly connected with higher BMI in this group.

Timing and duration of sleep are potentially modifiable. Individuals can have more regular bedtimes and aim to have more sleep, which may help decrease body mass index and the potential development of diabetes in this high-risk group.

DIABETES AND PREGNANCY

Diabetes is a serious disease in which your body cannot appropriately control the amount of sugar/glucose in your blood since it does not have sufficient insulin. Diabetes is the foremost common medical complication amid pregnancy, speaking to 3.3% of all live births.

Whether you’re trying to conceive or already pregnant, treating diabetes amid pregnancy is key to the wellbeing of both you and your child. Women who have diabetes before they get pregnant have extraordinary wellbeing concerns. While you may take good care of yourself, pregnancy could be a time after you need to take indeed more care. It is exceptionally vital for your wellbeing and for your baby’s health that your blood sugar levels are kept stable.

When you’re pregnant there’s a chance that a few of the potential complications of diabetes like eye illness and kidney infection may develop. There’s too a chance of developing pre-eclampsia, in which your blood pressure rises, which can cause issues for the baby. High blood sugar levels early in the pregnancy (13 weeks before) can cause birth defects. They moreover can increase the dangers of premature delivery and diabetes-related complications.

In case you’ve got diabetes, keeping your blood glucose as near to normal as conceivable before and amid your pregnancy is vital to remain healthy and have a healthy child. Getting check-ups before and amid pregnancy, following your diabetes meal plan, being physically dynamic as your wellbeing care group advises, and taking diabetes medicines if you would like to will help you to oversee your diabetes. Ceasing smoking and taking vitamins as your specialist advises moreover can assist you and your infant remains healthy.De

How can hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia affect my pregnancy?

Hypoglycemia happens when blood glucose levels are low. When blood glucose levels are low, your body cannot get the vitality it needs.

Symptoms-

  • Experiencing obscured vision
  • Having unexplained fatigue
  • Concerned approximately sudden changes in your mood

Hypoglycemia is treated by intake of something containing sugar, such as orange juice.

Hyperglycemia is when your body doesn’t have sufficient insulin or can’t utilize insulin properly.

Symptoms-

  • Always thirsty
  • Suddenly losing weight
  • Using the washroom often

Hyperglycemia is treated by altering your insulin dosages..

Risks of diabetes to my unborn child

There are a couple of possibly negative wellbeing dangers to the baby when the mother has diabetes.

  • Macrosomia is a condition in which your child develops too huge due to overabundance insulin crossing the placenta. A large infant can make vaginal delivery troublesome and increase the hazard of damage to the child amid the birth process.
  • Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can develop in no time after birth due to high insulin levels. Controlling your own blood sugar can offer assistance to lower the risks of hypoglycemia for your baby.
  • Jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes and can some of the time be credited to diabetes while pregnant. Your pediatric care supplier will help you with a arrange to reduce this condition for your newborn.

New aid to help identify and manage patients with diabetes at increased risk of fracture

Fragility fractures are a serious yet neglected complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with enhanced risk of fragility fractures in individuals with diabetes reaching out across the life span.deNTY

This is a concern as, globally, the prevalence of diabetes in adults is expected to increase from very nearly 425 million today, to around 629 million by 2045. In the meantime, many clinicians who treat patients with diabetes are not aware of their patients’ heightened risk of disabling and potentially life-threatening fractures.

Specialist stated the link between diabetes and skeletal health is complex and the optimal approach to the management of bone health in patients with diabetes is not yet definitive and may change after some time as discoveries of new clinical studies become available. This new review will inform clinicians about the present state of knowledge, and, importantly, the clear algorithm will facilitate the clinical assessment and management of fragility fracture risk in their patients according to current best practice.

The review outlines the clinical characteristics of bone fragility in adults with diabetes, and highlights recent studies that have evaluated bone mineral density, bone microstructure and biochemical markers, material properties, and fracture prediction (FRAX). It also looks at the effect of diabetes drugs on bone, and additionally the efficacy of osteoporosis treatments in these patients.

Key messages incorporate:

  • FRAX and BMD T-score predict fracture risk in those with type 2 diabetes; however both require modification for diabetes to avoid underestimation of risk.
  • The pathophysiology of bone delicacy in diabetes is likely multifactorial.
  • If a patient has sign for treatment in view of criteria produced for non-diabetes patients, these patients should be treated with osteoporosis drugs. Without built up osteoporosis, these pharmaceuticals might be utilized, despite the fact that with caution as the impacts of these medications in situations where bone fragility is mostly because of alterations in bone quality remain to be thoroughly evaluated.
  • Future studies should continue to evaluate the structural determinants (material properties, microstructure etc.) of bone fragility and refine fracture prediction algorithms by including disease-specific determinants of fracture.
  • New trials will have to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of osteoporosis treatment in diabetics with and without low a bone mineral density.

What Would Cause Sudden Weight Gain in Children?

Some children are prone to gain weight gain easily so it’s important to follow physical fitness and healthy diet. When child goes from slim to suddenly overweight, it’s a cause for concern. Before you panic about weight gain, you should understand that there is a wide array when it comes to a child’s weight. One of the usual suspects is puberty. If your child has recently has been experiencing other signs of puberty, her weight gain could be another facet of her changing body. Several factors account for weight gain like changes in level of activity, friends or mood. In some cases, if your child is taking a certain medication, like an anti-psychotic drug, weight gain is often a side effect.

We know that sudden weight gain could be the sign of serious conditions. Overweight children are at a higher risk for health problems, including high blood pressure, elevated levels of cholesterol and type 2 diabetes.

If child has gained weight and we think his food habits could be the problem then there is a serious concern to create healthy diet.p

In some cases, medical treatment may be necessary; especially if the rapid weight gain is a side effect or symptom of another condition. Kids are developing weight-related health problems previously it is seen only in adults.

Genes aren’t the only things that family members may share.The eating and exercise habits of people in the same household. If parents eat a lot of high-calorie foods their kids tend to do the same.

So it’s not a specific number on the scale that’s important. It’s making sure that kids stay healthy — inside and out.

What new skill are you working on with your child this week? Please post in the comments. This should be a great way to strengthen your baby’s metabolism!

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