Cancer is the collection of diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body. When cancer develops, cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors. Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade nearby tissues. Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not spread into, or invade nearby tissues.
There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Your treatment depends on where your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread, and your general health. There are different types of treatment you might have. Understanding your treatment and the side effects can help you to cope. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which removes cancer from your body. Surgery means removing tissue from the body. Surgery is not used for some types of cancer of the blood system (leukemia) and also some types of cancer of the lymphatic system (lymphoma). Sometimes surgery is not possible because of the position of the tumor. For example, if the tumor is near a blood vessel or other delicate tissue.
Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiotherapy means the use of radiation, usually X-rays, to treat illness. Radiotherapy destroys the cancer cells in the treated area by damaging the DNA within these cells. Although normal cells are also affected by radiation, they are better at repairing themselves than the cancer cells. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body. Mainly two types -
a) External Beam Radiation Therapy
b) Internal Radiation Therapy.
Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. Chemotherapy can be used to cure cancer, lessen the chance it will return, or stop or slow its growth. Chemotherapy can be used to shrink tumors that are causing pain and other problems. They work throughout your body and are called a systemic treatment.
Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. Immune system is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer. Which includes Checkpoint inhibitors, Adoptive cell transfer, Monoclonal antibodies, Treatment vaccines, Cytokines, and BCG.
Targeted therapy is the foundation of precision medicine. It is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Small-molecule drugs are small enough to enter cells easily, so they are used for targets that are inside cells. Monoclonal antibodies are drugs that are not able to enter cells easily. Instead, they attach to specific targets on the outer surface of cancer cells.
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that slows or stops the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. Hormone therapy is also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy. Hormone therapy can lessen the chance that cancer will return or stop or slow its growth. It may also be used to reduce or prevent symptoms in men with prostate cancer who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy.
Stem Cell Transplants
Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in people who have had theirs destroyed by the very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy that are used to treat certain cancers. Blood-forming stem cells are important because they grow into different types of blood cells. The main types of blood cells are WBC, RBC, and platelets.
Bone Marrow transplants
Bone marrow transplant is a way of giving very high dose chemotherapy, sometimes with whole body radiotherapy. This treatment aims to try to cure some types of blood cancer such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.
Precision medicine is an approach to patient care that allows doctors to select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. This may also be called personalized medicine. The idea of precision medicine is not new, but recent advances in science and technology have helped speed up the pace of this area of research. Currently, if you need treatment for cancer, you may receive a combination of treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.
Radiofrequency ablation, Laser treatment, High intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU), Photodynamic therapy, Cryotherapy, Ultraviolet light treatment, Gene therapy.