Category Archives: Bacterial

Gut Micro biome on Monkey

The Microbiome (or gut microscopic organisms) has been fixing to a wide assortment of therapeutic conditions from mental imbalance to heftiness. The absence of fiber in present-day Western eating regimens is regularly thought to make destructive bothers the human gut microbiome. Be that as it may, the causes and results of how the gut microscopic organisms of people changes as social orders end up modernized and westernized is as yet a puzzle on the grounds that there are such a large number of factors when contemplating people. To more readily see how changes in eating routine, way of life, and presentation to current prescription influence primates’ guts, a group of scientists utilized DNA sequencing to ponder the gut microorganisms of numerous non-human primates species in the wild and in bondage as a model for concentrate the impacts of resettlement and way of life changes.

Monkey

The analysts contemplated two distinct species: the profoundly imperilled red-shanked and the mantled howler monkey. The creators at that point contrasted the hostage primate microbiomes with the microbiomes of their wild partners and to those of present-day people living in creating countries and in the United States. What they found could be viewed as disturbing. Not exclusively did hostage monkeys lose a large portion of their common wild gut microscopic organisms, however, they reliably all procured the equivalent new and less differing set of microbes – similar microorganisms living in our very own advanced human guts. Over a few distinct zoos on three unique mainlands, all hostage primate microbiomes demonstrated a similar example of joining toward the advanced human microbiome.

Neurotropic Viruses: An insight into their movement

The rabies virus moves differently compared to other neuron-invading viruses and its journey can be blocked by a drug commonly used to treat amoebic dysentery.

It is when the immune system is compromised that most viruses infect the nervous system accidentally. But there are certain viruses called the neurotropic viruses that target neurons as part of their normal infectious cycle. The rabies virus is an example to this where the virus is transmitted when an infected animal bites a host. It then spreads into the end terminals of motor neurons innervating the muscle and travels along the neurons’ long axon fibres to the neuronal cell bodies, throughout the central nervous system and into the salivary glands, where it can be readily transmitted to other hosts.

Alpha herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex viruses, also enter peripheral nerve terminals and move along axons to the neuronal cell body, where they can lie dormant. Alpha Herpes viruses engage the neuronal transport machinery by stimulating protein synthesis at infected nerve terminals. Transport of the viral particles to the cell body can therefore be blocked by drugs that inhibit protein synthesis, as well as by cellular antiviral proteins called interferons.

In contrast to alpha herpes virus infections, the interferon’s had no effect on rabies virus transport, perhaps because, until it reaches the neuronal cell body, the rabies virus hides out inside cellular structures called endosomes.

Transport of these viruses to the neuronal cell body is an active process which completely relies on the neuron’s own motor proteins and microtubule tracks. Infection cannot start until and unless the viral particles engage this machinery for efficient transport in the axons Neurons were infected with a virulent strain of the virus tagged with a red fluorescent protein, allowing the observation of viral transport in real time by live-cell fluorescence microscopy to determine how the rabies virus engages the neuronal transport machinery.

Increased protein synthesis was also not detected in axons upon rabies virus infection. But, it was seen that a protein synthesis inhibitor called emetine efficiently blocked rabies virus transport to the cell body. The movement or mobility of endosomes with the virus was either completely blocked, or was only able to move short distances at slower speeds. Other protein synthesis inhibitors did not block rabies virus transport, which suggest that emetine functions by inhibiting a different process in infected neurons.

Emetine has been used to treat amoebic dysentery and in laboratory it is widely used to inhibit protein synthesis but there are recent reports indicating that emetine has anti-viral effects that are independent of protein synthesis inhibition. This study shows that this drug can inhibit rabies virus invasion of the nervous system through a novel mechanism that hasn’t been reported before. This study both advances and complicates our understanding of how neurotropic viruses make their way from the axon terminus to the cell body. The next step would be to figure out how emetine disrupts rabies virus transport in axons.

Colloidal Silver: Healthy or Dangerous?

bsColloidal silver is the term used to describe tiny particles of silver suspended in a liquid. In other words, it is a suspension of silver particles in a liquid.

It’s a popular alternative therapy and an ancient remedy that was once used to treat bacterial, viral and fungal infection ranging from common cold to cancer. Before modern antibiotics were developed, colloidal silver was used as an all-purpose remedy for various infections and illnesses.

Recently, it has experienced a revival in popularity with some claiming it can replace antibiotics or other medical therapies to treat bacterial, viral and fungal infections. However, the use of colloidal silver is controversial and has been linked to serious side effects. The size of the silver particles can vary, but some are so tiny that they are referred to as “nanoparticles.” This means that they are less than 100 nm in size and invisible to the naked eye. A normal filtering process would not remove them.

How Does Colloidal Silver Work?

It’s unknown exactly how colloidal silver works. However, it is said to have broad antibacterial and antiseptic effects when taken orally or placed on a wound. It is suggested that it attaches to proteins on the cell walls of bacteria, damaging their cell membranes. This allows silver ions to pass into the cells, where they can interfere with the bacterial metabolic processes and damage its DNA, leading to the cell’s death. Silver ions are released from the silver particles when they come into contact with moisture, such as body fluids. They are considered to be the “biologically active” part of colloidal silver that gives it its medicinal properties. However, it’s worth noting that colloidal silver products are not standardized.

Potential health benefits & Side effects:

Colloidal silver is claimed to have antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, there is currently no evidence that colloidal silver has any of these health benefits. The biggest risk associated with chronic exposure to colloidal silver is argyria. Argyria is a condition that turns the skin a blue grey colour due to a build-up of silver metal particles in the body and skin. Silver deposits can also occur in the intestines, liver, kidneys and other organs. If you use it frequently on an open wound, you may experience localized argyria due to a build-up of silver in the surrounding tissue.

These particles may more easily pass into your cells and possibly cross the blood-brain barrier, they are considered a probable health risk. Applying colloidal silver to your skin is considered less risky than ingesting it. However, if the solution contains very small nanoparticles, you may absorb these through your skin. Additionally, silver has no function in your body and no known benefits when taken orally. Considering the risks and lack of proven benefits, using colloidal silver products is probably not a good idea.

Bacterial Diseases

BactThe study is the first to show that the chemical — known as allicin — could be an effective treatment against a group of infectious bacteria that is highly resistant to most antibiotics.

Allicin is a natural compound secreted by garlic bulbs. This chemical compound ward off a closely-related group of plant pathogens found in soil and water habitats.

In the 1980s, a bacteria — known as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) — emerged as a cause of serious and transmissible lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

 The Bcc are highly versatile plant and human pathogens that have not been studied to the same extent as other superbugs — such as MRSA. The bacteria produce potent antimicrobial agents, making them naturally drug-resistant and allowing them to survive in polluted and antibiotic-rich environments.

Caution Measures to limit the spread of Bcc infections among people with cystic fibrosis brought the number of cases down considerably. However, current therapies available to treat infections — that are potentially fatal — are limited and require the use of combinations of three to four antibiotics at a time.

It had now been found that allicin — which can be extracted by crushing raw garlic — inhibits the growth of bacteria and, at higher doses, kills the plant pathogens. The team suggests that allicin kills Bcc bacteria by chemically modifying key enzymes. This deactivates them and halts important biological processes within the pathogens‘ cells.

allicin-containing remedies could be used in allicin kills the bacteria combination with existing antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. However, the mechanisms by which allicin kills the bacterium has to be well understood before the chemical can be incorporated into new treatments.

At a time when novel antimicrobial agents are urgently required, chemical and microbiological research has the potential to unlock the rich reservoir of antimicrobial compounds present in plants such as garlic. Allicin-containing compounds merit further investigation as adjuncts to existing treatments for infections caused by Bcc.”

“The medicinal power of garlic has a rich history that dates back thousands of years but the chemical structure of Allicin was only revealed in the 1940s. This work suggests that modern methods should be used to further expand our knowledge of this enigmatic molecule and rejuvenate its potential applications.”

Bacillus Bacterium

Bacillus is a rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the species of Gram-positive rods fdownloadrom the member of the phylum Firmicutes often arranged in pairs or chains with rounded or square ends and usually, have a single endospore where these endospores are generally oval or sometimes round or cylindrical and have very resistive nature towards adverse conditions. Bacillus species can be of aerobic or anaerobic also to the obligate aerobes which are oxygen dependent. This Bacillus includes both nonparasitic and parasitic pathogenic species.

Examples of Bacteria: Bacteria are the microscopic one-celled organisms which are the plural of bacterium. Bacteria names are Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma as they are found to be every which can be harmful in case of infections; also beneficial in cases like fermentation or decomposition of any substance. Anthrax is an infection usually transmitted from animals by bacteria, Bacillus anthracis. There are four types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal, and injection which are diagnosed by using bacterial cultures from infected tissues.

Anti-Microbial Therapy: Bacillus infections involves certain risk factors including intravenous drug abuse, sickle cell disease immunosuppression from malignancy, neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy and also in foreign devices including indwelling intravascular catheters central nervous system shunts, breast implants, and pacemakers, hence careful clinical evaluation is required during Isolation of Bacillus organism in determining its significance.

Prevention: The main preventative measure for gastroenteritis caused by Bacillus. cereus is proper food handling. The heat-resistant spores of B. Survival of this cereus are more during boiling and germinate when boiled rice is left unrefrigerated.

Rewarming of rice before serving or partly frying is not sufficient to destroy the preformed heat-stable toxins; hence food should either be maintained at a temperature higher than 60°C or should be cooled rapidly to a temperature below 8-10° if it is going to be stored without any spoilage in preventing its growth further.