Author Archives: Rohit Casper

Can we measure child health by growth ?

There is a relationship between child growth and health can we measure Growth is the progressive increase in the size of a kid or parts of a child. Development is a term of progressive acquisition of different types of skills, abilities those are as following head support, speaking, learning, expressing the feelings and relating with other people. Growth and development are go together but at involves in different rates.

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Importance of the child growth and development:

The assessment of growth and development is very helpful in finding out the state of Child health and nutrition of a child. Normal growth of a child and development indicate a good state of health and nutrition of a child. Abnormal growth or growth failure is a symptom of illness or disease. so the measurement of growth is an essential component of the physical examination.

Some of the Factors affecting growth and development are as following:

Each child’s path or pattern of growth and development is differ compared to one to another it will be based on genetic and environmental factors The genetic factors mostly determines the potential and limitations of growth and development. If favourable the environmental factors, such as adequate nutrition facilitate the achievement of the genetic potential of growth and development. Unfavourable factors, acting singly feeling  or in combination, slow or stop growth and development Some of the unfavourable factors are low nutrition  infections  congenital malformations, hormonal disturbances, disability, less  emotional support, lack of interest to  play and lack of language training To promote optimum growth  these environmental factors can be removed or minimized. Once they are removed there follows a period of catching  up growth During this period the growth rate is greater than normal This growth rate continues until the previous growth pattern is reached Then the growth rate is reduced to the normal rate determined by the individual’s genetic factors A child genetically determined to be tall grows slightly more rapidly than a child genetically determined to be short Similarly  a child genetically determined to be clever develops their intellect more  than a child genetically determined to be less intelligent.


Foods which are helpful in child growth :

Dairy Products, Eggs, Chicken, Soybean, Banana, Oatmeal, Nuts and seeds, Leafy green vegetables, Fruits, Fish, Carrots, whole grains, Turnips, Beans

Foods to avoid:

While the above foods help increase height in children there are some which are detrimental to growth as well. The intake of excessive sugar, salts, coffee, fat and aerated drinks should be curbed. This is because these foods are known as calcium inhibitors, which can impact the absorption of calcium in the body in a negative way. Smoking and consumption of drugs in your child’s growing years can also stunt growth and take a negative toll on health. Children with poor eating habits can also develop health complications like obesity, heart disease, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis, in the long run.

What is Psychology of a child and Why Is It Important?

Child Psychology is a field of study which involves the mental, emotional and behavioural development of a child. It traces the entire journey of a child from infancy until the end of adolescence and studies their cognitive and intellectual development.

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Why s It Important:

The early years of an individual’s life are crucial for their emotional, social and physical wellbeing. This has an overall impact on their personalities as an adult. Research says that the early years play a significant role in brain development too. A person’s early experiences both with their parents as well as with the outside world profoundly affect their future physical, cognitive, emotional and social development. Understanding the psychological needs of a child is not easy, but it needs to be done. Children at different stages of development behave in different ways. A child of 5 – 6 years will behave differently than an adolescent. Realising and accepting your child’s likes, dislikes, qualities like good or bad is the key to being a good parent. When you accept them just the way they are, they get a sense of security.

Physical Development:

which  is typically a predictable sequence of events if Your child holds their head up  rolls over, crawls, walks, and runs, in that order. Your Child Psychologist can aid your paediatrician in observing your child’s physical development, and if there are any abnormalities that could indicate developmental irregularities. Child Psychologists will observe your child’s progression toward the milestones of development to ensure that your child is physically developing normally. Major delays in physical development may reveal other underlying developmental issues that can then be addressed early on.

Cognitive Development:

The medical understanding of childhood cognitive development has greatly changed in  recent years. We now know that even new born babies are aware of their environment and are interested in it, even before they have the language to express that.

Cognitive development can be defined as intellectual learning and thought processes of a child. It includes the observation and understanding of the world around them, language learning, memory, decision-making, problem-solving, how the child uses their imagination, and how the child uses basic reasoning. All of these factors are influenced by a child’s genetics and environment.

Social emotional development represents a specific domain of adult development. It is a gradual, integrative process through which children need the capacity to understand, experience, express, and manage emotions and to develop meaningful relationships with others. As such, social emotional development encompasses a large range of skills and constructs, including, but not limited to self-awareness, joint attention, and play, theory of mind, self-esteem, emotion regulation, friendships, and identity development. Many mental health disorders, including major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, borderline personality disorder, substance use disorders, and eating disorders, can be conceptualized through the lens of social emotional development, most prominently emotion regulation. Many of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder reflect abnormalities in social emotional developmental areas, including joint attention and theory of mind.

How can a Child Psychologist Help?

Child Psycho-therapists can help in a lot of ways. They are well trained to help children with family problems, issues at school, health-related problems, and difficult relationships. They also specialize in helping children with disorders like ADHD, Schizophrenia, Depression, Anxiety, Eating Disorders, etc. Child Psycho-therapists also work on the development of a child’s mental health and focus on their overall development cognitive, social, emotional and linguistic. Childhood is a very important phase in our life A bad childhood could have a negative impact on the individual’s adulthood as well. and also  awareness of your child’s personality is an essential part of parenting. Only if you know your child well will you be able to focus on his talents and positives which in turn will give him a well-rounded personality in the years to come.

Is Using Baby Lotion on Newborns Safe?

3Once you welcome your new born baby  into the new world caring for the baby  becomes a first  priority  this is the question many first time mothers have is about skin care for new born baby  New-borns have very  delicate skin that is vulnerable to irritation and dryness Although new born baby skin does not require additional moisturisation very often  the skin does get dry after baths and may require a smaller amount of moisturiser to replenish the natural skin oils lost due to bathing or dry air this is safe to use lotion to protect your little one’s skin

When Can You Start Putting Lotion on a New-born Baby:

Neonates have a covering over their skin called as ‘vernix’ this is a waxy layer of protection that covered their body in the mother’s womb to protect their skin from the amniotic fluid. This layer starts peeling off in the first few weeks after birth, giving the appearance of dry  flaky skin the  skin below this layer is consist of moist which is  enough and does not need extra moisturisation.

However, you can use a moisturiser if the baby seems to have very dry skin, especially around the ankles, elbows and hands. It is safe to use petroleum jelly, olive oil or Vitamin A-D cream to help with the appearance of the skin when the vernix is peeling off. If you want to use store-bought moisturiser, it is best to use a mild, fragrance-free one or one that has been recommended by your new-born’s paediatrician.

Why Does a New-born Baby’s Skin Need Lotion:
A new born baby’s skin is actually consist of  moist under the outermost layer. However, it does need lotion or a moisturiser as it can become dry when exposed to dry air in the room and also, after a bath. It is best not to bathe your new born baby more than thrice a week, as this can strip the baby’s delicate skin of all the oils that keep the skin soft and supple. The baby’s skin is sensitive and prone to irritation and eczema. Hence, you may need to use lotion or moisturiser to soothe skin irritation and combat baby eczema.

How to Choose the Best Lotion for Your New-born:       

To find out the what is best lotion for newborn baby following these tips:Pick a mild and gentle lotion that is free of perfume and colours, parabens, phthalates, phenoxyethanol, preservatives, and organically extracted plant oils, always Choose a lotion that is doctor recommended rather than buying one at a store., If you wont  to buy lotion you can use olive oil, petroleum jelly or doctor-recommended vitamin A-D cream, Use a lotion that is hypoallergenic on your baby’s skin and to avoid any allergic reactions.

Is it harmful to EAT before bedtime?

2Eating late nights is never ideal, but sometimes you don’t have any choice especially when your day is like a marathon. There are many studies on whether eating before sleep will boost up the metabolism or will increase the fat level in the body. This is all depended on what you eat before going on the bed.

If you have heavy meals with lot of carbs then this initially leads to fat deposition and may leads to cardiovascular problems. Having a low energy food will help in regulating the sugar levels in the blood and also help you with good sleep and leave you waking up hungry in the morning.

Eating lean protein, whole grains, fresh fruits, vegetables, and having handful of nuts will always be a better choice. In the same way warm milk, crackers can help to drift you off to sleep; the sugar content in them will hit the serotonin in the brain and can aid us to sleep. Even an apple, a bit of almond butter, a piece of sweet potato or something simple and clean,

Full meals before going on to the bed can be harmful as it can cause weight gain and heartburns which will disturb the sleep. In the same way sleeping with the empty stomach can also disturb your sleep so eating at least two hours before the bed is good for your tummy. For women it will be beneficial to eat every 3-4 hours for stable blood sugar and hormone production.

It’s important to eat enough during the day so you aren’t catching up on calories at night. Having water or tea help you to do something with your hands and keep you hydrated and therefore less hungry. Your metabolism slows down, so nighttime is the slowest time for your digestion. Coming to metabolism it drops 10% to 15% during the night and can even reach a 35% decrease during your deepest sleep cycles. Finally mindlessly eating before bed can be harmful to your body.

Is your child growing normally ?

1Growth is the progressive increase in the size of a kid or parts of a child. Development is a term of progressive acquisition of different types of skills, abilities those are as following head support, speaking, learning, expressing the feelings and relating with other people. Growth and development are go together but at involves in different rates.

Importance of the child growth and development

The assessment of growth and development is very helpful in finding out the state of Child health and nutrition of a child. Normal growth of a child and development indicate a good state of health and nutrition of a child. Abnormal growth or growth failure is a symptom of illness or disease. so the measurement of growth is an essential component of the physical examination.

Some of the Factors affecting growth and development are as following

Each child’s path or pattern of growth and development is differ compared to one to another it will be based on genetic and environmental factors The genetic factors mostly determines the potential and limitations of growth and development. If favourable the environmental factors, such as adequate nutrition facilitate the achievement of the genetic potential of growth and development. Unfavourable factors, acting singly feeling  or in combination, slow or stop growth and development Some of the unfavourable factors are low nutrition  infections  congenital malformations, hormonal disturbances, disability, less  emotional support, lack of interest to  play and lack of language training To promote optimum growth  these environmental factors can be removed or minimized. Once they are removed there follows a period of catching  up growth During this period the growth rate is greater than normal This growth rate continues until the previous growth pattern is reached Then the growth rate is reduced to the normal rate determined by the individual’s genetic factors A child genetically determined to be tall grows slightly more rapidly than a child genetically determined to be short Similarly  a child genetically determined to be clever develops their intellect more  than a child genetically determined to be less intelligent.

Foods which are helpful in child growth :

Dairy Products, Eggs, Chicken, Soybean, Banana, Oatmeal, Nuts and seeds, Leafy green vegetables, Fruits, Fish, Carrots, whole grains, Turnips, Beans

Foods to avoid:

While the above foods help increase height in children there are some which are detrimental to growth as well. The intake of excessive sugar, salts, coffee, fat and aerated drinks should be curbed. This is because these foods are known as calcium inhibitors, which can impact the absorption of calcium in the body in a negative way. Smoking and consumption of drugs in your child’s growing years can also stunt growth and take a negative toll on health. Children with poor eating habits can also develop health complications like obesity, heart disease, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis, in the long run.

Do you think Immunity is Important for Decreasing spread of Diseases?

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Basically Disease spreading pathogens need needs susceptible people to spread from one person to another person, where as everybody in a community can’t be more immune to be prevented from the disease spreading pathogens so if a high enough proportion of individuals in a community are immune the majority immune people will protect the few susceptible people. In this way immunity can have an impact on spread of diseases to one and another in a community and having a chance of breaking the chain of spreading diseases.

What is the importance of immunity?

Immune System, The system that is created of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends individuals against germs and microorganisms on a daily basis. In most cases, the system will do a good job of keeping individuals healthy and preventing infections. The main purpose of immune system is to safeguard your body from viruses and microorganism, this typically works well however will cause issues if your systemcause issues if your system incorrectly classifies a number of your own cells and attacks them instead. There are types of immunity so called Adaptive immunity – in these two types of immunities take place they are: Passive immunity and Active Immunity whereas immunity occurred due to passage of antibodies from one person to another is called passive immunity For an example through transfusion and Active immunity involves two types of white blood cells – T Cells & B

Hypothyroid children can perform like a normal child?

1Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is underactive and produces an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder affecting children. However, children with the disorder display different symptoms from adults. Hypothyroidism in the new born, when left untreated, can lead to intellectual disability and profound developmental delays.

What causes hypothyroidism:

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune reaction in which the body’s immune system slowly destroys the thyroid gland. This is known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis. Maternal antibodies produced against a woman’s thyroid, or treatment of a mother’s thyroid disorder such as iodine, can affect her unborn child’s thyroid function.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism:

The symptoms of hypothyroidism in children are different than in adults. The following are the late symptoms of the disorder. However, each child may experience symptoms differently, and often the symptoms are not seen at all.Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for congenital abnormalities of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, and skeletal systems. Jaundice yellowing of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, Poor appetite, Slow bone growth, Slow growth, Delayed tooth development, Tiredness, Feeling cold, Constipation, Slow growth, Delayed puberty, Hair loss, Dry skin, Weight gain The symptoms of hypothyroidism may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child’s doctor for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis: Congenital present at birth hypothyroidism is usually detected during the routine new born screening. In older children, blood samples taken may reveal abnormally low levels of T4 the main hormone released from the thyroid or abnormally high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), suggesting thyroid problems. Released from the brain, TSH is the hormone that increases the size, number, and activity of the thyroid cells. TSH also stimulates the release of hormones that affect a person’s metabolism and that are essential for normal growth and development. Evaluation may include a scan of the thyroid gland to check for abnormalities.

What is congenital hypothyroidism:

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) means the disorder is present at birth. CH is one of the most common and preventable causes of intellectual disability.

Treatment: Specific treatment for hypothyroidism will be determined by your child’s doctor in consultation with you. Considerations include your child’s current and past health status, age, medication tolerance, projected disease progression, and your beliefs and attitudes about the treatment alternatives. Left untreated in new born, hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability. Untreated hypothyroidism may also lead to anaemia, low body temperature, and heart failure. The goal of treatment is to restore the thyroid gland to normal function, producing normal levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment may include prescription of thyroid hormones to replace the deficient hormones. Some children will require hormone replacement therapy for the rest of their lives, while others appear to outgrow the disorder, often by the age of three. Regular monitoring of the child’s thyroid hormone levels during the course of treatment, including a one month discontinuation of treatment after age three years to see how the thyroid responds, can help your child’s doctor diagnose your child’s condition more accurately.

Learn more about “How to reduce your risk for getting heart attack or stroke up to four times”

Dental Health, Heart Diseases and  Stroke:12

The health of your mouth may affect your overall health of your body. Inproper oral health may influence your body’s response to heart disease and stroke. Healthy gums help protect your body from the bacteria (germs) on your teeth and in your mouth that can cause an infection. If germs stay on your teeth for too long, layers of plaque and tartar (hardened plaque) develop. This buildup leads to early gum disease, called gingivitis. Redness, swollen, tender or bleeding gums are symtomes of an early gum infection. Unless the infection is treated the inflammation continues.

Inflammation is the body’s natural response to an infection or a foreign object in side our body. Experts think that as inflamed blood vessels swell less blood may flow to the heart and the rest of the body, raising blood pressure.

Bacteria may enter the bloodstream through the gums and become part of fatty plaques (a buildup of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances) in blood vessels.

  • A stroke occurs when fatty plaques break off the wall of a blood vessel and travel to the brain cutting off its blood supply.
  • A heart attack occurs when fatty plaques form lumps in blood vessel leading to the heart.

Smoking is one of the reason which is related to gum disease, heart disease and stroke. Smoking weakens your body’s immune system. This makes it rigid to fight off a gum infection. Once you have gum damage, smoking also makes it problematic for your gums to heal.

Nicotine in tobacco causes blood vessels to constrict. As vessels narrow, blood pressure rises. Undetected or uncontrolled high blood pressure leads to heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and premature death. Quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy blood pressure through diet, exercise and nutrition may reduce the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.

Extra Experiments needs to be conducted on the relationship between oral health and heart disease and stroke. However, it is necessary to note that people with good oral health generally have fewer chronic diseases, including heart disease and stroke.

How to reduce your risk for getting heart attack or stroke up to four times” is the Oral Presentataion to be conducted by Dr. Dirk Schreckenbach of University of Saarland, Germany under the session ‘Diabetes and periodontal disease’ at the meeting 34th International Conference on Dental & Oral Health which is going to be held in Helsinki, Finland during October 21-22, 2019.

Is Novel Drug Delivery System responsible for the Enhanced Drug Delivery?

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Novel Drug Delivery System comprising the methods namely

  • Transdermal Drug Delivery system
  • Carrier Based Drug delivery system

Both the methods have been a revolution in the field of drug delivery and distribution. The aspects like bio availability of the drug to the body and specificity of the target in body has been optimized by the improvements and discoveries made in the field of novel drug delivery system.

Targeted drug delivery system has been the major motto of the NDDS from the very start of the subject inclusion as an result many wonders are been discovered year by year which are leading to the optimized and enhanced mechanism of drug distribution and delivery with specificity in the target

Transdermal Drug Delivery System

|| Sonophoresies

  • Mucoadhesive Delivery System
  • Supramolecular Delivery System
  • Variable Release Delivery System

|| Osmatic Pump

|| Microencapsulation

Transdermal Drug delivery system has been the major aspect to be discussed that had given the release from administration of pain killers which is leading to drug abuse. The transdermal drug delivery patches has been the major development which later have been used not only as pain killers or analgesics but also many other targeted drug administrations.

Pros: No dose dumping, No internal administration, no drug drug interactions

Cons: Dermal infections.

Carrier Based Drug Delivery System

|| Liposomes

|| Nanoparticles

|| Microspheres

|| Resealed Erythrocytes

|| Monoclonal Antibodies

What Makes Protein And Health So Addictive?

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Proteins aressential nutrients for the human body. Proteins stand as one of the structure blocks of body tissue, and can also assist as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy as carbohydrates. Protein is an important component of every cell in the body and plays an important role in human development. Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. Your body uses protein to repair and build tissues in the body. You also use protein to make hormones, enzymes and other body chemicals. Protein is an important construction block of bones, muscles, skin, and blood.

Along with fat and carbohydrates protein is one of the macronutrients, that the body needs relatively large amounts of it. Vitamins and minerals, which are required for a human body in only small amounts, are called micronutrients.

Protein and protein supplements will continue as mainstream in fitness and healthy body which are likely appeal to older segments of gym members, as more research emerges supporting the role of higher protein intakes to counteract the age-related loss of muscle tissue, strength, and functional capacity. Research supporting the safety of higher protein intakes should be of particular interest to fitness professionals. Thus, higher protein intake not only supports body composition goals but also appears safe and vital for healthy aging.

High Protein Food: Eggs, Almonds, Chicken, Oats, Cottage Cheese, Greek Yogurt, Milk, lean beef, Tuna, Pumpkin seeds  etc; these are some of the high protein foods which helps in human development.