Author Archives: Rohit Casper

World Diabetes Day – Human Metabolism 2019

Diabetes is perpetual, pulverizing and now and again lethal sickness, in which the body either can’t create insulin or can’t legitimately utilize the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that controls the measurement of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Diabetes prompts high glucose levels, which can harm organs, veins, and nerves. The body needs insulin to utilize sugar as a vitality source. fourteenth November was picked as “World Diabetes Day” as it harmonizes with Frederick Banting’s birthday, the man who, alongside Charles Best and John James Rickard Macleod, considered that prompted the disclosure of insulin in 1922. This was an exceptional accomplishment in the treatment of diabetes.

Types of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes happens when the invulnerable framework erroneously assaults and slaughters the beta cells of the pancreas. No, or practically nothing, insulin is discharged into the body. Subsequently, sugar develops in the blood as opposed to being utilized as vitality. Around 5 percent of individuals with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It, for the most part, creates in youth or youthfulness, however, can create in adulthood. Type 1 diabetes is constantly treated with insulin. Dinner arranging likewise assists with keeping glucose at the correct levels.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes happens when the body can’t appropriately utilize the insulin that is discharged or does not make enough insulin. Thus, sugar develops in the blood as opposed to being utilized as vitality. Around 95 percent of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. It frequently creates in grown-ups, yet youngsters can be influenced. Contingent upon the seriousness of sort 2 diabetes, it might be overseen through physical action and supper arranging, or may likewise require drugs or potentially insulin to control glucose all the more successfully.

Gestational diabetes

The third sort of diabetes, gestational diabetes, is a brief condition that happens amid pregnancy. It influences around two to four percent all things considered and includes an expanded danger of creating diabetes for both mother and youngster.

Diabetes and a few complications

Having high glucose can cause diabetes-related difficulties, as ceaseless kidney infection, foot issues, non-horrible lower appendage (leg, foot, toe, and so forth.) removal, eye sickness (retinopathy) that can prompt visual impairment, heart assault, stroke, uneasiness, nerve harm, and erectile brokenness (men). Diabetes-related inconveniences can be intense and even hazardous. The prior a man is determined to have diabetes the better it is. Legitimately overseeing glucose levels lessens the danger of creating them.

Did you know?

About one out of two, 46 percent of the 415 million grown-ups living with diabetes are uninformed of their condition. The greater part of these cases is type 2 diabetes. World Diabetes Day plans to feature the need to screen, analyze and furnish proper treatment to individuals with diabetes crosswise over nations. “Eyes on Diabetes” is the subject of World Diabetes Day this year. It is a call for activity to screen individuals at the danger of sort 2 diabetes.

Life-threatening organ damage can be prevented by controlling Blood Pressure in Diabetics

Hypertension with diabetes comes with life-threatening complications. The best way to control these complications is to control blood pressure.

A study in Clinical and Experimental Hypertension conducted with around 800 diabetic patients and 1000 non-diabetic patients. This study looked at the commonness and risk factors for hypertensive emergencies and drastic increase in blood pressure in diabetic patients.

In this study it was found that both diabetics and non-diabetics with hypertensive emergencies had similar rates of severe injury to target organs. It was also observed that diabetics with hypertensive emergency also had significantly higher levels of blood pressure. From this it was concluded that the occurrence of severe damage to vital organs is not because of just diabetes but because of the accompanying severely elevated blood pressure.

According to several studies, hypertensive emergencies are associated with life-threatening damage to the brain, kidneys and heart. Around 2% of people with high blood pressure will have a hypertensive emergency during their lives and it is even more common among people with diabetes.

It is said that the risk of hypertensive emergencies in diabetic patients is significantly higher in those with cardiovascular conditions, kidney disease and anemia. Also according to a recent study, uncontrolled hypertension was associated with a 55% increased risk of cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes.

Since, it has been observed that the presence of severely elevated blood pressure is the main reason that damages the vital organs in individuals with diabetes so the most important intervention for preventing hypertensive emergencies would be to manage the blood pressure of the patient. Ways like carefully selecting interventions that will improve patients’ adherence to medications, or making strategies to overcome clinical inertia or increasing therapy when blood pressure levels are not met can potentially help in reducing the damage to target organs associated with hypertensive emergencies.

Breast feeding and newborn’s salivation shape oral microbiome

The infant is first exposed to bacteria in utero from the placenta during gestation, then at the time of birth, is colonized with rich and diverse microorganisms from maternal sites, including the maternal lower genital tract, feces and/or skin, from milk feeds as well as from the general environment. The microorganisms contribute to the development of the neonatal oral microbiota that will then colonies the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).  The GIT microbiota has been shown to have many important roles in producing the infant’s innate and adaptive immune system, conferring protection against attacks from pathogenic microbes

In newborn child’s saliva high levels of the metabolites, xanthine and hypoxanthine are present, which are substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme that is highly abundant in breast milk. When neonatal saliva mixed with breastmilk during feeding, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations up to 100 micromolar are formed, and this, in turn, activates the ‘lactoperoxidase system’ (LPO) in milk to further produce other reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The creation of these ROS and RNS was affirmed to have in vitro antibacterial action.

The mixture of breastmilk and saliva has been shown to play a vital role in shaping the healthy oral microbiota during the first few months of life, but this also has significant implications for premature or sick babies who are fed via a tube.

The newborn baby’s gut microbiota is a highly powerful community that is continuously shaped during the 1st days of life, with nutrition being among the most relevant drivers for its composition.

In this situation of the microbial trend among mother and child, the baby’s mouth is unavoidably involved, being the commit transition point for the milk to reach the gastrointestinal tract. The oral microbiota is a well-defined portion of the human microbiome.

 During breastfeeding, the infant’s saliva responds with breastmilk to deliver reactive oxygen species, while at the same time giving growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays a nutritional role in mammals, collaborating with newborn’s saliva to produce a strong mixture of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral-and consequently gut-microbiota.

Current Trends in Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials are the studies which covers high quality manuscripts both relevant and applicable to the broad field of experiments or observations done in clinical research. These studies renders novel, clear connection with clinical practitioners, medical/ health practitioners, students, professionals, researchers, professional bodies and institutions.

Focus and Scope
Currently Clinical Trials objective is to maintain and develop science and related research at an international level. It is important to bring into light of outstanding research and development results to the world instantaneously in latest advancements towards clinical trials to achieve objective of the clinical trials.

 Highlighted Topics

  • Adverse Event Monitoring
  • Biomarkers in Clinical Trials
  • Biostatistics
  • Cancer Clinical Trials
  • Clinical Case Studies
  • Clinical Practice Guidelines
  • Clinical Progress for Specific Diseases or Therapeutic Areas
  • Clinical Research & Bioethics
  • Clinical Study Design and Methodology
  • Clinical Trial Data Management and Statistics
  • Clinical Trial Methodology
  • Clinical Trials
  • Clinical Trials Data Management & Software
  • Clinical Trials Europe
  • Clinical Trials Japan
  • Clinical Trials USFDA
  • Contemporary Clinical Trials
  • Data Auditing Methodologies
  • Diabetic Trials
  • Drug Clinical Trials
  • Drug Safety Issues
  • Findings in Phase -I to -IV clinical studies
  • Healthcare Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomics
  • HIV Clinical Trials
  • Overviews of the Clinical Progress of New Drugs or Drug Classes
  • Pharmacy Marketing
  • Patient Stratification and Individualized Therapies
  • Pilot Studies
  • Preclinical Trials
  • Protocol
  • Psychiatric Studies
  • Quality Assurance & Data Auditing Methodologies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials
  • Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Trials
  • Regulatory Issues
  • Rehabilitation Protocols

 Seven trends that should be familiar to all in clinical development:

  1. Increasingly complex trials: More and more interest is building in iteratively modifying parameters of a trial protocol based on real-time outcomes
  2. Precision medicine: Precision medicine is on the rise as the technology increases to administer therapeutics to patients in highly individualized ways.
  3. Virtual trials: Virtual clinical trials represent a new method of collecting safety and efficacy data from clinical trial participants through the use of mobile health (mHealth) technology without requiring them to visit facilities or doctor’s offices.
  4. Patient centricity: Patients are no longer recipients of healthcare, they are active participants. Patient centricity requires more than simply gaining insight from patients; it includes a focus on meeting patient needs and translating patient insights to products that improve outcomes.
  5. Big data analytics and AI modeling: Advances in data analytics and visualization enable researchers to explore and interact with large-scale, often aggregate, bodies of data.
  6. Ever-more data: As the genomics revolution hits the mainstream and real-world data (such as wearable sensors and patient social media trails) becomes accessible and accepted, clinical trials have an explosion of data to ingest, manage and analyze.
  7. Blockchain: Blockchain is a linked data structure that establishes a timestamped, chronological record of history that cannot be tampered with or deleted because no single person or organization has control over the ledger.

 These trends in clinical research indicate a shift from efficiency centric approach to a broad based effectiveness oriented approach.

Acupuncture More Effective Than Conventional Therapy in Treating Lower Back Pain

Acupuncture or Needle Therapy seems, by all accounts, to be more powerful than ordinary treatment in treating low back agony. “Low back torment is a typical, debilitating and impairing condition, frequently long haul, with an expected lifetime pervasiveness of 70 % to 85%, Although the examination recommends that both hoax needle therapy and Traditional Chinese velum needle therapy seem, by all accounts, to be viable in treating low back agony.

It is the second most regular torment for which doctor treatment is looked for and a noteworthy purpose behind truancy and handicap.” Acupuncture is progressively utilized as an elective treatment, yet its incentive as a treatment for low back torment is as yet questionable.

Conventional treatment comprised of a mix of drug, active recuperation and exercise. Five extra sessions were offered to the individuals who had a halfway reaction to treatment (10 %to 50 % torment decrease). A sum of 13,475 treatment sessions were directed (verum needle therapy, 4,821; hoax needle therapy, 4,590; traditional treatment, 4,064). As indicated by acupunctural lessons this will re-establish wellbeing and prosperity, and is especially great at treating torment.

The prevalence of the two types of needle therapy proposes a typical hidden component that may follow up on torment age, transmission of torment flags or handling of torment motions by the focal sensory system and that is more grounded than the activity instrument of regular treatment,” the creators finish up. “Needle therapy gives doctors a promising and compelling treatment alternative for endless low back torment, with couple of unfavourable impacts or contraindications. The enhancements in all essential and auxiliary result measures were critical and kept going long after fruition of treatment.

Pain Management

For chronic pain sufferers and Neuro-oncological patients who develop back pain after a car accident, avoiding the harmful effects of stress may be a key for managing their condition. This is invasively important for people with a smaller-than-average hippocampus, as these individuals seem to be particularly vulnerable to stress. Cortisol, a hormone created by the adrenal organs, is once in a while called the ‘push hormone’ as it is actuated in response to stretch. Our investigation demonstrates that a little hippocampal volume is related with higher cortisol levels, which prompt expanded powerlessness to torment and could build the danger of creating a risk of chronicity.

Investigation reveals more insight into the neurobiological instruments of this essential connection among stress and torment. Regardless of whether the aftereffect of a mishap, sickness or medical procedure, torment is regularly connected with large amounts of pressure, discoveries are valuable in that they open up roads for individuals who experience the ill effects of agony to discover medicines that may diminish its effect and maybe even anticipate chronicity. To supplement their medicinal treatment, torment sufferers can likewise take a shot at their pressure administration and dread of agony by getting assistance from a clinician and attempting unwinding or reflection systems.

The main goal is to analyse the relationships between four factors:

1) Cortisol levels, which were resolved with saliva samples

 2) The evaluation of clinical torment revealed by patients before their mind examines (self-perception of pain);

3) Hippocampal volumes estimated with anatomical attractive reverberation imaging (MRI)

 4) Cerebrum enactments evaluated with useful MRI (fMRI) following thermal pain management. The outcomes demonstrated that patients with constant agony by and large have higher cortisol levels than solid people.

Data analysis revealed that patients with a littler hippocampus have higher cortisol levels and more grounded reactions to intense agony in a mind locale engaged with expectant nervousness in relation to pain management. The response of the brain to the painful procedure during the scan partially reflected the intensity of the patient’s current clinical pain condition which may cause pain relief.

Radiation in Medicine

Radiation is the transmission or traveling of the energy through space or a material medium in the form of waves or particles. Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is the most familiar form of radiation that we know. Except for the UV radiation, there are some higher-energy kinds of radiation, collectively known as Ionizing Radiation (such as α, β, or γ radiation) that are present on Earth and we all are exposed to it in minute doses through rock, soil, space, and air. But exposure to the higher levels of such radiation is harmful and dangerous and thus, the exposure should be controlled. The use of radiation in the medical field has made a huge evolution. Today, about one-third of the entire medical specialties involve radiation or radioactivity, right from the diagnosis – to the treatment.

Radiation is used in both nuclear medicine and radiology, but the difference is:

  • In general radiology, the X-rays enters the body from the outside source through space and creates a fixed or still image of the body, while in Nuclear medicine; a small amount of radioactive material (radiotracers, or radiopharmaceuticals) is administered internally, via injection, swallowing or inhalation inside the body into the bloodstream. This radioactive material travels through the area to be examined and produces γ-rays which are detected by the computers to create images.
  • The traditional imaging systems of radiology (X-rays, Ultrasound, CT scans, MRI) creates only a fixed or still image of the body showing the anatomy or structure of the body, while the nuclear imaging techniques (PET, SPECT) show the physiological function of the area to be investigated by producing two-dimensional or three-dimensional images.
  • In addition, through Nuclear medicine imaging techniques, a specific organ or tissue can be examined such as brain, lungs, and heart, unlike in general radiology imaging procedures where it produces the image of the whole area such as the chest cavity or abdominal cavity.


Both of these medical imaging specialties are used to diagnose and determine the severity of the disease and are involved in their effective treatment.

These imaging procedures are non-invasive or have the minimal invasion, less risk, a shorter recovery time and are less painful than the surgical treatments.

It also improves the cancer diagnosis with early detection and also involves its effective treatment (known as radiation oncology).


As with all the medical procedures, radiation techniques also involve a level of risk but the benefits are significantly greater than any risk involved.

  • Exposure to the radiation in such techniques carries with it a minute increase in the risk of developing cancer later in life, especially to the radiologists and physicians.
  • In nuclear medicine, there is a small level of risk associated with the radiotracers administered into the body such as allergic reactions which are very rare as the type of the radioactive materials used by the specialist, depends on the medical history of the patient.

Improving Pediatric Asthma Care Is Possible

Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow and inflame and produce extra mucus. Not all children have the same asthma symptoms, and these symptoms can vary from one episode to another in the same child. According to a new study, it is clear that improved and personalized assessments for hospitalized patients can improve the accuracy of prescribed therapy for asthma a child receives. Asthma kills approximately 4000 people annually, including several hundred children.

Asthma can be caused by many factors, including

  • Allergens – pollen, animals.
  • Irritants – cigarette, air pollution.
  • Climate – cold air, changes in climate
  • Exercise
  • Infections – flu, common cold

 The study showed that the quality of asthma care improved after doctors were equipped with simplified patient care decision-making tools, an electronic medical record system and access to a mobile phone application to guide personalized attention to each patient. People with asthma persistently suffer from inflammation of the airways and constriction due to various irritants. The irritants that inflame the lungs are called triggers. The triggers of asthma include: pollen, viruses, cigarette smoke, dust mites, pollution, cockroaches, exercise, mold, pet dander, among many others.

 Some children with asthma have a mild illness and need a rescue inhaler every now and then. However, children with persistent asthma need to use a daily asthma control medication, such as an inhaled corticosteroid, to prevent asthma attacks.

Inhaled corticosteroids taken every day decrease the chronic inflammation found in asthma. It has been proven that these medications reduce the frequency and severity of asthma exacerbations.

Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor

New research reveals that people with blue eyes have (single) common ancestor. Previously we all had brown eyes, but a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a ‘switch,’ which literally turned off the ability to produce brown eyes.

The OCA2 gene codes for the P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin pigment that gives color to our hair, eyes, and skin. The “switch,” which is found within the gene adjacent to OCA2, however does not, turn off the gene totally, but rather limits its action to lessening the production of melanin within the iris successfully i.e; “diluting” brown eyes to blue. The switch’s impact on OCA2 is exceptionally specific.

In addition to having significantly less melanin in their iris than people with brown eyes, hazel eyes or green eyes, blue-eyed individuals have only a little degree of variation in their genetic coding for melanin production. Brown-eyed people, on the other hand, have significant individual variation within the area of their DNA that controls melanin production. From this the researchers conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestors and they all have inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA.

The color of our eyes depends on the amount of melanin is present in the iris. There’s only brown color within the eye — there’s no hazel shade or green shade or blue color. Brown eyes have the highest amount of melanin within the iris, and blue eyes have the slightest.

Risks Associated With Blue Eyes

As blue eyes contain less melanin as compared to hazel, brown and green eyes they are more susceptible to damage from UV and blue light because melanin in the iris protects the back of the eye from the damage caused by UV radiation and high-energy visible (“blue”) light from sunlight and artificial sources of these rays.

Research has shown that blue eye colour is associated with a greater risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a rare but potentially deadly form of eye cancer called uveal melanoma.

For these reasons, people with blue eyes should be more cautious regarding their exposure to sunlight.

Obesity-associated Liver cancer

Obesity has been on the rise in developed countries over the past few decades. In spite of the fact that weight has long been connected to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is additionally progressively being recognized as a leading hazard in numerous forms of cancer. For illustration, one recent study found that obesity-associated inflammation contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma, a sort of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in people around the world. Obesity drives a change of the gut microbiome, leading to the discharge of metabolites associated with the advancement of liver cancer.

Obesity spurs changes within the intestine microbiome that can lead to the production of DNA-damaging metabolites. Circulation of these metabolites through the intestine and liver initiate inflammatory and tumor-promoting components that produce more susceptible to liver cancer. Changes to the trillions of microbes that are found in the intestine in reaction to obesity can contribute to the formation of damaging microbial metabolites.

To explore how obesity might cause cancer, researchers turned to a mouse strain expressing a luminescent marker for a quality that actuates a condition called the senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Though senescence, the cessation of cell division that accompanies old age, has been appealed to suppress tumor formation, later prove shows that beneath certain conditions, senescent liver cells produce pro-inflammatory components that advance tumor growth. Cells in this senescent but pro-inflammatory state are showing SASP.

The researchers to begin with looked for a distinction in cancer development between obese mice encouraged high-fat count calories and incline mice encouraged a typical count calorie. Unable to observe a critical distinction, the researchers suspected that obesity-linked cancer may require an oncogenic stimulus. Beyond any doubt enough, when exposed to a chemical carcinogen, all of the obese mice developed liver cancer, while as it were 5 percent of the lean mice did. The obese mice too had higher levels of the SASP luminescent marker within the hepatic stellate cells the essential cell sort involved in the formation of scar tissue taking after liver damage suggesting that obesity invigorates the condition.

To explore how obesity might cause SASP, the researchers looked to recent prove that obesity is related to large-scale changes to the trillions of microscopic organisms within the gut that can produce harming inflammatory metabolites. Thinking that proliferating organisms within the gastrointestinal tracts of the obese mice can be triggering SASP, the researchers treated the mice with vancomycin or a cocktail of four antimicrobials to kill off most of the microbes. The treated mice appeared a noteworthy reduction in liver cancer, suggesting that certain intestine bacteria were undoubted to blame for the spike in cancer frequency. The discoveries involve hepatic stellate cells as a vital transducer of the signals that arise from the microbiome in changing the microenvironment to favor the rise of cancer

The researchers were moreover able to pinpoint a specific intestine microbes metabolite the known carcinogen deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the trigger for SASP. Repressing the generation of DCA suppressed liver cancer in obese mice, while antibiotic-treated mice given a high-fat diet counting DCA experienced a surge in liver cancer. So distant, They have been able to illustrate that the gene expression of incendiary components related with SASP can be actuated in human hepatic stellate cells in vitro. In addition, investigate by other bunches has found that human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver infection, a hazard factor for liver cancer, have been appeared to show signs of SASP in hepatic stellate cells.